CHAPTER 6: CONSTRAINTS RELATED TO A BETTER CONSERVATION OF
Constraints related to the implementation of conservation measures
are mainly due to two factors: the poverty of populations that often
work for their survival and the successive droughts that entail the
massive death of plants and animals.
6.1 CONFLICTS DUE TO NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
In a context where the basis of the subsistence of the majority of
the population depends on the exploitation of natural resources,
conservation of biological diversity is at the same time not only a
condition to the survival and development of these populations, but
also a challenge.
Droughts of the seventies clearly revealed the necessity to have
systems of production adapted to the climatic variations, capable of
permitting the production of the minimum necessary, in spite of the
unfavourable climatic conditions that would prevail. In these
conditions it is imperious to have a large range of technologies,
including phytogenetic, animal, forest resources.
But, many factors hinder the conservation of biological diversity.
The most important ones are:
- natural climatic variations: the big droughts provoked a mass
mortality of animal and plant species, and a slip of areas of
distribution of certain spontaneous species of the Sahel toward
Sudanese climatic zones;
- systems of slash-and-burn technique and extensive agricultural
The exact impact (positive or negative) of these two factors on
biological diversity is not well established, due to lack of detailed
Other not less important factors contribute to the bad conservation
of resources. These are mainly:
- poaching that constitutes the real enemy of fauna nowadays. With
regard to this activity its impact deserves to be valued;
- urbanisation : it inexorably leads to the disappearance of plant
and animal species in the most affected zones (e.g. : the Central
- opposition between the modern legislation and customary
(traditional) regulation; this is how traditional appropriation
right, of collective type, opposes modern right based on private
- introduction of a preliminary authorisation and the payment of
taxes for any exploitation of resources for commercial purposes
are often badly understood, which creates fraudulent exploitation,
susceptible to compromise the conservation of biological
- conflicts between objectives of use and socio-professional
groups (in a context of demographic expansion and natural resource
- agriculture/breeding - the extension of agriculture was being
done at the detriment of pastoral space;
- natives / natives (related to problems of inheritance and
- natives/migrants (land problems)
- insecticide treatments: some insecticide products proscribed by
legislation are still sold on the markets. These substances
destroy without discernment harmful and natural auxiliary insects,
and break the food chains. The consequence of all this is the
disappearance of numerous species.
6.2 OTHER DIFFICULTIES
Besides the above mentioned constraints, there are other
difficulties of which the main ones are enumerated below.
- The unsuitability of certain systems of agricultural
popularisation; they incite the peasant to plant some productive
varieties through technological packets prepared in advance,
rather than to incite him to use several varieties, notably local
ones. On this topic, a joint project by the Ministry of
Environment / Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research
is under formulation. This project aims at laying strong
foundations for in-situ conservation, in getting producers more
- The vast number of contributors in the management of natural
resources and biological diversity. Indeed, the Burkinabč
institutional landscape concerning natural resources management
and conservation of biological diversity is marked by a scattering
of decision centres.
- The insufficiency and sometimes the lack of a scheduling of
actions by priority.
- The not taking into account the cost of natural resources
regeneration, notably the fixing of quotas of exploitation as well
as actions and/or taxes intended for the restoration of products
taken, which creates a situation of imbalance between supply and
demand and tends to lead eventually to the extinction of species
and the imbalance of ecosystems.
The devaluation of the franc CFA, could have as other consequence
an aggravation of the deterioration of biological diversity because of
the increase in prices of imported products, notably agricultural
inputs (fertiliser in particular) and medicines, which constrains the
populations to fall back more on natural resources.