Country study Burkina Faso 
Biodiversity 

3.2.3 STATE OF THE CONSERVATION OF SPECIES AND POPULATIONS

The measures and actions undertaken until now made it possible to preserve some of the habitats which are the most favourable to the conservation of biological diversity, such as parks, natural reserves (protected forests, protected zones and silvi-pastoral reserves). Map 11 gives a view of the distribution of protected natural formations.

Map 10: Hydrographic network and water reservoirs

Map 11: Protected natural formations

3.2.3.1 Presentation of the richest habitats in fauna and flora diversity

In Burkina Faso, like everywhere in the world, biological diversity is distributed through all the country's ecosystems according to the biology and ecology of each species. Today, these ecosystems are victims of many natural and man-made factors, particularly, persistent droughts and population pressure, which make their equilibrium precarious. The consequence of this is the reduction of species ecosystems and habitats, the scarcity of some species, which have now become fragile, the change in attitude of some species, etc.

Today, the richest (qualitatively and quantitatively) habitats in species amount to the various conservation areas of terrestrial fauna (national parks, synergetic zones, biosphere reserves, etc.), protected forests, natural and artificial wetlands (ponds, dam lakes, developed areas, etc.). In these agricultural zones, there is an increasing development of a vertebrate fauna dependent on these types of habitats (eg. : crop destructive insects).

3.2.3.1.1 National parks, natural reserves and other protected zones

In the report, presented by Burkina Faso at the United Nations Conference, on the Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in1992, the country's natural forestry formations are divided into two domains: the non-protected domain (11 604 000 ha, i.e. 75% of formations) and the protected domain (3 816 000 ha, i.e. 25% of formations). The protected formations (protected forests and the silvi-pastoral and partial fauna reserve) are 65 and cover a total area of 2 678 747 ha (source : GUINKO S., 1996). The development below presents the components of the protected domain.

a) National parks.

They include the total protection zones of wildlife and its habitat where the only samples allowed are those of improvements by technical services, (by involving resident populations). There are two (2) in the country, particularly the "W" National Park, established by decree on August 14 1954 with an area of 350 000 ha, situated in the Tapoa province, half-way between Niger, Benin and Burkina Faso, and the Kaboré Tambi National Park in Pô, Nahouri province, established by order 76-02/PRES-ET of 02/09/1976. The total area of national parks is 390 500 ha, i.e. 10% of protected formations.

b) Wildlife reserves.

Wildlife reserves are protected natural zones or wildlife exploitation (sampling, hunting, and tourism of vision, etc.) is regulated.

Burkinabè wildlife, which used to be very rich has now become much poorer today. The existing big wildlife is mainly concentrated in the extreme south of the protected zones of the southwest zones (Comoé province), Centre-south and southeast (provinces of Sissili, Nahouri, Gourma and Tapoa). The Arly wildlife reserve and the Nazinga game ranch are high observation points of big wildlife (source: Notice de la Carte de végétation du Burkina Faso, GUINKO S. et FONTES J., 1995).
Wildlife reserves cover 2 545 500 ha. The are nine (9) most important ones in terms of area and they are subdivided into two categories according to the management approach applied to them. Thus, four total reserves and five partial reserves can be distinguished; the list of the 9 wildlife reserves is shown in table 19.

Table 19: List of wildlife reserves

Name  Classification  Area (ha) Year of establishment Situation
Arly Wildlife Reserve Total 76 000 1954 Tapoa province
Madjoari Wildlife Reserve Total 17 000 1970 Tapoa province
Singou Wildlife Reserve Total 192 000 1955 Gourma province
Bontioli Wildlife Reserve Total 12 700 1957 Bougouriba province
Arly Wildlife Reserve Partial 96 000 1954 Gourma province
Kourtiagou Wildlife Reserve Partial 51 000 1957 Tapoa province
Pama Wildlife Reserve Partial 223 700 1955 Gourma province
Nabéré Wildlife Reserve Partial 36 000 1957 Bougouriba province
Bontioli Wildlife Reserve Partial 29 500 1957 Bougouriba province
TOTAL    733 900    

Source: OUEDRAOGO N. A., 1997.

The areas mentioned for the various reserve categories are the ones existing in official records. However, the actual areas are less than these figures because of the various pressures mentioned earlier. In addition to these reserves, there is the Nazinga Game Ranch, which contains an important diversity of vertebrates.

c) The silvi-pastoral and partial wildlife reserve

In Burkina Faso, there is a silvi-pastoral and partial wildlife reserve known as of the Sahel, which covers an area of 1 600 000 ha, corresponding to the Soum, Séno and Oudalan provinces. It is a zone where pastoral activities are undertaken in natural pastures and where there is a wildlife reserve open to pastoral activities. The main part of this reserve is now subject to exploitation systems which do not conform with the status of a reserve; this explains why the prospecting undertaken as part of the UPV-82/008 project retained a zone of 1 220 km2 comprising the west of Forage Christine, the Oursi and Béli ponds for the conservation of the representative ecosystems of Burkinabè Sahel (source : OUEDRAOGO N. A., 1997).

d) Synergetic reserves

They concern the wildlife-protected areas where hunting is controlled and wildlife habitat partially protected. Depending on their management systems, they are either real synergetic zones, controlled by the State agencies in charge of environment, or zones hired by the State to individuals who ensure their management themselves following laid down specifications.

e) Reserves of international importance

Three protected domains in Burkina Faso have an international importance, i.e. belonging to world patrimony. These are : The Hippopotamuses Pond (biosphere reserve of an area of 19 200 ha) situated in the Houet province, the Oursi Pond (Ramsar site with an area of 45 000 ha) in the Oudalan province , and the "W" Park (Ramsar site with 235 000 ha), half-way between Burkina Faso, Benin and Niger.

f) Protected forests

According to METRO A., 1975 protected forests are the forestry zones defined and demarcated as such according to a legislative and regulatory measure, in such a way as to give it the required legal protection. The protected forests of Burkina Faso cover a total area of 1 112 747 ha, without the Sahel silvi-pastoral and partial wildlife reserve (see. Table 20). However, this total area is theoretical, because of the illegal settlements forests are subjected to.

Table 20: Situation of protected formations in Burkina Faso

Province  Name of the formation  Situation(district, village)  Date of designation-classification  N° of order -decree- of designation Area(ha)
Comoé  FC Bérégadougou Banfora  4 Nov. 1953 8107 /SE / F 5 000
Comoé  FC Bounouna Sidéradougou  31 May 1955 4088 /SE / F 1 300
Comoé  FC Boulon Sidéradougou  31 May 1955 4087 /SE / F 12 000
Comoé  FC Kongoko Sidéradougou 31 May1955 4089 /SE / F 27 000
Comoé  FC Kaflandé Banfora 4 Nov. 1953 8106 /SE / F 30 000
Comoé  FC Diéfoula Niangoloko  29 Nov. 1937 3499 /SE / F 85 000
Comoé  FC Logoniégué Mangodara  4 August 1955 689 / FOR 29 000
Comoé  FC Babolo Niangoloko  22 Sept. 1943 3413 /SE / F 550
Comoé  FC Gouandougou Sidéradougou  31 May 1955 4086 /SE / F 9 500
Comoé  FC Dida Mangodara 4 August 1955 688 / FOR 75 000
Comoé  FC Toumousséni Banfora  12 April 1954 2875 /SE / F 2 500
Comoé  FC Yendéré Niangoloko  5 April 1934 1312 /SE / F  700
Comoé  FC Source du Mouhoun Moussodougou  31 May 1955 4084 /SE / F 100
Comoé  FC Niangoloko  Niangoloko  27 Feb. 1936 420 /SE / G 6 654
Boulgou  FC Ouilingoré Zabré  23 Oct. 1936 2500 / SE 6 850
Boulgou  FC Yakala Tenkodogo  23 Oct. 1936 2500 / SE 1 600
Bougouriba  FC Dibon Diébougou  24 June 1954 4637 / SE/F 20 000
Bougouriba  FC Bougouriba Diébougou  4 August 1955  690 / FOR 8 500
Bougouriba  FC Bontioli Diébougou  23 March 1957 3147 / SE/F 29 500
Bougouriba  FC Nabéré Diébougou  3 August 1953 5768/ SE/ EF 36 500
Houet  FC Maro Houndé  28 Jan. 1940  116 / SE 50 000
Houet  FC Bahon Houndé  26 March 1937 836 / SE 1 600
Houet  FC Tui Houndé  17 Jan. 1940 115 / SE 50 000
Houet  FC Dindéresso Bobo-Dsso 27 Feb. 1936, 
26 August 1941
422 / SE or
3006 / SE / E
8 500
Houet  FC Mare aux Hippopotames Satiri  26 March 1937  836 / SE 19 200
Houet  FC Koulima Bobo-Dsso 27 Feb. 1936 421 / SE or
1486 / SE
2 150
Houet  FC Bansié  Bobo-Dsso 26 March 1937 836 / SE 300
Houet  FC Mou Bobo-Dsso 20 Oct. 1938 3406 / SE 34 000
Houet  FC Dan Bobo-Dsso 3 August 1953 5765 / SE 4 300
Houet  FC Téré Kouka  23 Nov. 1951 8314 / SE/ F 10 700
Houet  FC Kou Bobo-Dsso 13 Jan. 1951 190 IGF 117
Houet  FC Péni  Bobo-Dsso 24 Sept. 1942 3389 / SE/ F 1 200
Houet  FC Koa Bobo-Dsso 27 April 1936 891 / SE 350
Houet  FC Bambou Bobo-Dsso 26 March 1937 836 / SE 1 800
Houet  FC Kapo Houndé  26 March 1937 836 / SE  9 900
Ganzourgou  FC Wayen Wayen  26 August 1941 3009/SE or 3005 12 000
Kadiogo  FC Barrage Ouagadougou  9 Oct. 1936
26 August 1941
2376 / SE or
3004 / SE
260

Table 20 (continued)

Province  Name of the formation  Situation(district, village)  Date of designation-classification  N° of order -decree- of designation Area(ha)
Kouritenga  FC Sitenga Koupéla  23 Oct. 1936 2500 / SE 840
Mouhoun  FC Pâ Boromo  19 June 1937  1639/SE/S 15 625
Mouhoun  FC Bonou Boromo  19 June 1937 1639/SE/S 1 700
Mouhoun  FC Tuy Bondokuy  17 Jan. 1940 115/SF/5 50 000
Mouhoun  FC Nasébou Boromo  19 June 1937 117/SE 14 000
Mouhoun  FC Sâ Dédougou  17 Jan. 1940 3320/SE 5 400
Mouhoun  FC Kari Dédougou  13 Oct. 1938 3320/SE 13 000
Mouhoun  FC Ouoro Dédougou  13 Oct. 1938 3320/SE 14 000
Mouhoun  FC Toroba Dédougou 13 Oct. 1938 3320/SE 2 700
Mouhoun  FC Tissé Dédougou  13 Oct. 1938 3320/SE 21 500
Mouhoun  FC Sorobouty Boromo  13 Oct. 1938
17 Jan. 1940
113/SF/S 5 800
Mouhoun  FC 2 Ballé Boromo  19 June 1937 1639/SE/S 115 000
Nahouri  FC Pic de Nahouri Pô  13 Oct. 1938 3320/SE/S 836
Nahouri  FC de Nazinga Pô  4 Decem. 1953 8827/SE/F 38 300
Namentenga  FC Tougouri   9 Oct. 1936 2376/SE 40
Oubritenga  FC Nakambé Ziniaré, Manga, Kombissiri  3 August 1953  5767/SE/EF 98 000
Oubritenga  FC Ziga Ziniaré  3 August 1953 5769/SE/EF 9 000
Oubritenga  FC Gonsé Saaba  28 Feb. 1953 1550/SE 6 000
Oubritenga  FC Bissiga Zitenga  23 Oct. 1936
26 August 1941
2500/SE
3003/SE
4 100
Passoré  FC Niouma Yako  12 April 1954 2878/EF 735
Passoré  FC Twéssé Yako  24 June 1954 4638/SE/F 490
Poni  FC Koulbi Batié  4 August 1955 387/FOR 40 000
Sanmatenga  FC Yabo Kaya  9 Oct. 1936 2376/SE/S 1 000
Sanmatenga  FC Dem Kaya  19 June 1937 1639/SE/S 350
Sanmatenga  FC Nakambé   9 Oct. 1936 2376/SE 2 000
Sanguié  FC Kalio Pouni  17 Janv. 1940
May 1 1936
111/SE/S
961/SE
12 000
Sissili  FC Sissili Léo  31 Decem. 1955  1093/FOR 32 700
Soum-Séno-Oudalan Réserve sylvo-pastorale et partielle de faune du Sahel Séno-Oudalan-Soum   9 Decem. 1970 Ordonnance n° 70/302/PRES/
AGRI-EL
1 600 000
Sourou  FC Sourou Yaba 27 March 1937 1092  14 000
TOTAUX  66        2 712 747

Source: GUINKO S., 1996

3.2.3.1.2 The situation of protected areas

In addition to the late initiation of the measures in order to protect them (1936-1957), the protected zones are increasingly faced with an accelerated degradation which constitutes a serious threat. The main damages protected formations are subjected are:

  • degazetting, modifications of demarcations and changes in the status of some forests;
  • every 1/3 of the country's area undergoes bush fires;
  • clearing of almost 100 000 ha/year of forestry lands;
  • fragilisation of ecosystems by their inappropriate exploitation;
  • resurgence of the degradation of formations because of population and livestock, as well as the successive droughts which cause a plant and animal massive death.

Inside protected areas all the components of biological diversity do not benefit from practical appropriate conservation measures. This is particularly the case of entomological fauna and aquatic flora, which represent hardly explored domains. In addition, efforts made as part of conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity are characterised by constraints coming mainly from the poverty of the populations often struggling for their survival.

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