Country study Burkina Faso
In Burkina Faso there are three main types of ecosystems:
The rest of the country includes other types of environment, particularly dunes, towns, rocks and roads.
3. Biological resources
The richest habitats of species (in terms of quantity and quality) amount to the various conservation areas of terrestrial fauna (national parks, synergetic areas, biosphere reserves), forest reserves, natural and artificial wetlands (ponds, lakes of dams, developed areas).
The overall data from the thematic studies conducted in response to
the needs of this report show the following contributions of
biological diversity to the national economy in 1996.
In addition, there is sight-seeing tourism which contributes to the
national economy. In 1993 this contribution was 17 791 548 US dollars.
Some types and/or species of fauna and flora have an important economic value because of the high profitability of the products they provide. They are, for example:
Cotton (fibre, seeds...)
Rice (human feed);
Tomato (human feed);
Cowpeas (human feed);
Sesame (oil, confectionery...);
Corn (human and animal feed);
Peanut (seeds, oil, drying of leaves for hay...);
Shea-tree (kernels, wood...);
Neere ( pulps and seeds used for making soumbala...);
Citrus fruit (fruit);
Soya (Soya milk, beans for making soumbala, Soya oil, cakes for animal feed...);
Red sorghum (sorghum beer, human feed);
Millet and white sorghum (human feed);
Sorrel (drink, seeds, fibres, sauce);
Exotic vegetable plants;
Edible higher fungi;
Livestock (proteins, foreign currency);
Wild animals (proteins);
Shea caterpillar (human feed).
Let us note that data figures have not been established yet for some products taken from biological diversity. This is the case, for example, of pharmacological products and a lot of non-ligneous forest products (e.g.: Most fruits picked up from spontaneous species, straw used for thatching roofs, etc.).
In Burkina Faso the situation of endemism at the level of flora and fauna is not well known; Nevertheless, it was found that 23 vegetable species surveyed in Burkina Faso are endemic in West Africa.
As far as threats on species are concerned, few inventories have been made because of the relatively new situation of the attention paid to the various constituent components of the country's overall biological diversity.
However, it was found that losses in biological diversity are mainly due to the following threats and trends:
6. Endangered species
The number of endangered species is low, but this certainly does not correspond to reality, since research work on their identification is recent and very little. Endangered species have been numbered according to the following categories:
7. Measures in favour of the conservation of biological diversity
The measures, in force, aiming at reversing the trend hinge on regulation, Programming, planning and implementation of developmental action. The main items of these measures are:
8. Spending on conservation of biological diversity
According to official data, the implementation of the overall measures by governmental structures during these five years (1992-1996) cost 230 579 million CFA francs (as far as annual budgets and projects within the framework of the Public Investment Programme) divided as follows: 11 433 million CFA F financed with the State's own resources, 11 181 million CFA F born by self-financing of activities and 205 966 million CFA F from external support (loans and subsidies). Besides these expenses, there is a substantial NGO financial support to the management of renewable natural resources.
The financial need of the Burkinabč State to complement its own efforts amounts to 27 056 million CFA F for all actions within the framework of PANE (1994).
9. Options of conservation of biological conservation
With regard to the present situation of biological diversity, the following general options have been put forward:
These options are part of State policy, which is based on decentralisation, and devolution of power from the State to decentralised territorial communities, particularly in the area of "Land Management". Among the specific options which have been approved, the following may be listed:
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