Third National Report of Belgium
to the Convention on Biological Diversity


B. PRIORITY SETTING, TARGETS AND OBSTACLES

2010 Target

The Conference of the Parties, in decision VII/30, annex II, decided to establish a provisional framework for goals and targets in order to clarify the 2010 global target adopted by decision VI/26, help assess the progress towards the target, and promote coherence among the programmes of work of the Convention. Parties and Governments are invited to develop their own targets with this flexible framework. Please provide relevant information by responding to the questions and requests contained in the following tables.

Belgium: although some existing objectives and programmes, developed prior to Target 2010, obviously have similar goals, few or no objectives have been set directly in relation to Target 2010 on (sub)national level. Only since this year, a certain dynamic has been started to establish objectives to meet some of the targets and goals of the 2010 Target. This explains the scarceness of information in some boxes below, and certainly for those asking for information in relation to the follow-up of the targets.

Box III.
Goal 1 Promote the conservation of the biological diversity of ecosystems, habitats and biomes.
Target 1.1 At least ten percent of each of the world's ecological regions effectively conserved

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

Nature and forest reserves only cover some 1.1% of the Belgian territory. The designation of areas in the framework of the Birds and Habitats Directives (Natura 2000) allows or will allow to increase this figure to about 13% of the territory.

Flemish Region: the surface of nature and forest reserves (strict protected areas IUCN classification I and II) has doubled since 1996: in 2004 there are 882 nature and forest reserves with a total surface of 28,059 ha (2.1% of the surface of the Flemish Region). Of this total surface of protected area 16,037 ha has been formally recognised or homologated as a reserve area.

Total surface of Natura 2000 (= Special Protection Areas under Birds Directive + Special Areas for Conservation under Habitats Directive minus the overlap) comes to about 164,000 ha, or 12.5% of the surface of the Flemish Region. Up to now, 649 landscapes received a formal protection status, accounting for about 3% of the Flemish Region. The atlas of traditional landscape relicts has been finalised in 2001 and widely distributed.

The use of pesticides and herbicides by local authorities in public domains or parks is forbidden since January 2004. Farmers receive subsidies through the Rural Development Programme to enlarge and maintain natural borders along their lands and to use manual or mechanised systems instead of chemicals. Compensation for the disappearance of nature and forest areas for development projects or other actions is mandatory in the Decree for Nature Conservation (only by physical compensation: nature development in other area and/or acquisition of land) and in the Forest Decree (physical or financial compensation).

North Sea: Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas are being designated for the moment, totalising 7% of the Belgian North Sea surface. A sustainable master plan is being prepared for the Belgian marine zone, whereof phase 1 and 2 are developed and adopted.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes X

Please provide details below.

Flemish Region: the Flemish Environment and Nature Policy Plan 2003-2007 includes a chapter on the theme 'Loss of biodiversity'.

Walloon Region: the 'Contrat d'Avenir pour la Wallonie Actualisé' (CAWA) was adopted by the Walloon Government on 20.01.2005. The Contract promotes a positive dynamic for the Walloon Region by actively involving the citizens. One of the objectives of the Contract is to increase the efforts to avoid the disappearance of animal and plant species, in line with the 2010 Target. To achieve this, the Contract proposes to mobilise all available human resources and integrate existing activities to create a real network of protected natural environments favourable for the development of fauna and flora (http://contratdavenir.wallonie.be).

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box IV.
Target 1.2 Areas of particular importance to biodiversity protected

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

Protected areas have been designated in the Regions. The designation of protected areas is ongoing in the Belgian part of the North Sea.

The National Biodiversity Strategy (in preparation) will address the issue of protected areas through the development of an integrated and coherent network of protected areas at national and transboundary level. This sub-objective aims to promote the interconnectivity between existing networks of protected areas.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box V.
Goal 2 Promote the conservation of species diversity
Target 2.1 Restore, maintain, or reduce the decline of populations of species of selected taxonomic groups

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

Flemish Region: objectives in relation to this target have been integrated in the Flemish Environment and Nature Policy Plans for 1997-2001 and 2003-2007, as well as in legislation based on Natura 2000.

Walloon Region: one of the objectives of the 'Contrat d'Avenir pour la Wallonie Actualisé' (CAWA) aims to increase the efforts to avoid the disappearance of animal and plant species, in line with the 2010 Target. To achieve this, the Contract proposes to mobilise all available human resources and integrate existing activities to create a real network of protected natural environments favourable for the development of fauna and flora.

The National Biodiversity Strategy (in preparation) will address this target by an objective aiming to maintain or rehabilitate to a favorable state of conservation the most threatened species of Belgian fauna and flora.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box VI.
Target 2.2 Status of threatened species improved

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

This target is addressed for migrating species under international conventions.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box VII.
Goal 3 Promote the conservation of genetic diversity
Target 3.1 Genetic diversity of crops, livestock, and of harvested species of trees, fish and wildlife and other valuable species conserved, and associated indigenous and local knowledge maintained

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

This target is adressed by the programme on fruit orchards, by the promotion of the use of indigenous plants and by organisations such as the 'Boomgaardenstichting'.

Concerning animal genetic resources, national priorities have been determined in relation to the actions responsible authorities have to focus on. These priorities, in a few words, are co-ordination, information and increase of public and stakeholder awareness, follow-up of animal populations, in-situ and ex-situ conservation.

The National Biodiversity Strategy (in preparation) will also address this topic.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) beenestablished, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes X

Please provide details below.

For breeding animals, a document can be considered as a starting point: the Belgian country report sent to the FAO within the framework of the first State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources (SoW-AnGR).

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

The AnGR report was finalised in December 2004 (Direction de l'Agriculture au Ministère de la Région wallonne. Les resources génétiques des animaux d'élevage en Belgique - Rapport national à la FAO: contribution de la Belgique au Premier Rapport sur l'Etat des Ressources Zoogénétiques dans le Monde, 58 pp.).

A project has been developed regarding the development of a cryobank for breeding animals. An actualised inventory has been established for poultry, pigeon and rabbit local breeds. This will allow to update international databases. Breeding and valorisation programmes are developed for animal local breeds such as Ardennais roux (sheep) and Dual-Purpose Belgian Blue (cattle).

A programme on regional fruit tree genetic resources started in January 2005. The main goal is to set up a multilocal network of conservatory orchards.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box VIII.
Goal 4 Promote sustainable use and consumption.
Target 4.1 Biodiversity-based products derived from sources that aresustainably managed, and production areas managed consistent with the conservation of biodiversity

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

The Walloon Region supports the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) and the Flemish Region supports the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC).

The Federal Governmental Agreement (2003) foresees a public procurement policy to encourage sustainable forest management as well as development cooperation activities to promote sustainable forest management.

First FPSD (2000-2004):

  • a market share for organic farming products of 4% between 2000 and 2003. Products from organic farming should represent 4% of all food purchases by public administrations as well, and public authority cafeterias will offer a meal based on organic food on a daily basis;
  • conversion to organic farming will be encouraged so as to increase the number of producers us-ing this mode of production (very low at present) by 70% per year from 2000 to 2003. In terms of land area, the objective is to reach, by 2003, a minimum of 4% of total farming area using, or in the process of conversion to, organic farming. By 2010, 10% of total farming area should be set aside for organic farming.

Action 19 of the second FPSD (2004-2008) entitled 'sustainable forestry policy: fight against illegal logging' is aimed at promoting sustanable forest management through development cooperation, promotion of timber issued from sustainably managed forests (public procurement, awareness campaigns) and a multilateral framework.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) beenestablished, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

First FPSD (2000-2004): indicators concerning the consumption of goods and services by households and public administrations. In the domain of nutrition: changes in the level of sales of organic farming products, as well as changes in prices of these products.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

A promotional week on organic farming products is organised each year.

Box IX.
Target 4.2 Unsustainable consumption, of biological resources, or that impacts upon biodiversity, reduced

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

The Federal Governmental Agreement (2003) states that projects contributing to the destruction of primeval forests will no longer be eligible for export credits and that illegally chopped wood should be barred from the Belgian market.

First FPSD (2000-2004):

  • regarding the leaching of organic substances (nitrogen, phosphorus) to the aquatic environment, priority will be given to agriculture's contribution to a 50% reduction in total nutrient load relative to 1985 levels, in compliance with the commitments undertaken at the Third North Sea Conference;
  • a plan for reduction in pesticide use will be prepared. It will aim at a substantial reduction in their use and take account of qualitative aspects. This reduction plan will: (i) be designed to fit in with the codes of good practice defined at regional level; (ii) use both economic incentives and regulations; (iii) cover both the sale of pesticides to individuals and their use by public authorities; (iv) aim to eliminate pesticide residues on and in consumer products; (v) emphasise action on the substances considered a priority under international commitments;
  • halting declines in fish stocks and developing an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, which rules out over-exploitation of fishery resources;
  • so far as water is concerned, within the framework of a collective effort to reduce water consumption, Federal public administrations will reduce their water consumption by 6 m3 per civil servant compared with 1999, between now and 2004;
  • the policy of simplifying government administration will be speeded up. This policy should have the effect of reducing the consumption of paper due to the Federal administration significantly (25%).

The 'fallowland-fauna' instrument exists in the Walloon Region since 2000. It allows for the covering of resting arable lands with vegetation, creating a privileged habitat for fauna. However, the instrument has had only limited success until now probably due to unawareness of many farmers and hunters about the instrument, the severity of the penalty when violations are detected and the heavy administrative burden placed on farmers and hunters. To remedy to this situation, the instrument was reviewed for 2005 and several constraints have been removed to obtain an enhanced network. Examples of adaptations of the instrument are the reduction of the minimal surface for fields to be eligible and a simplification of the procedures.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) beenestablished, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box X.
Target 4.3 No species of wild flora or fauna endangered by international trade

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

Belgium is a Party to CITES. This target is consistent with the main purpose of CITES and the CITES Strategic Plan: 'No species of wild flora subject to unsustainable exploitation because of international trade'.

The first FPSD (2000-2004) mentions: 'enforcement of CITES will be strengthened so as to support the policy of biodiversity conservation (training experts, providing inspectors, intensifying controls)'.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XI.
Goal 5 Pressures from habitat loss, land use change and degradation, and unsustainable water use, reduced.
Target 5.1 Rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats decreased

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target X
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established

Please provide details below.

This target is addressed by the legislation based on Natura 2000 and by the designation of nature and forest reserves.

In the National Biodiversity Strategy (in preparation), a specific target will address the identification of sectoral policies (land use planning, transport, energy) that adversely affect biodiversity and the endorsement of measures to correct these effects.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XII.
Goal 6 Control threats from invasive alien species.
Target 6.1 Pathways for major potential alien invasive species controlled

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

Walloon Region: this is addressed by the legislation on nature conservation, modified by the Decree on Natura 2000 (art. 5 ter), which forbids the introduction in nature of non-indigenous animals and plants, exception made for those involved in agriculture or sylviculture.

For the Flemish Region, the relevant regulation for exotic species is found in the Decision of the Flemish Government of 21.04.1993 on the introduction into the wild of non-native animal species (Belgisch Official Journal of 31.07.1993).

In this Decision, the following are considered to be non-native animal species: animal species which do not occur in Belgium in the wild under natural circumstances and animal species that have started to occur in the wild in Belgium since less than 50 years from the entry into force of the Decision. An exception is made for animal species that have known a natural range expansion. This includes pet species, which fall under the definition above. An example of a pet species that is targeted under these provisions and which is relevant from a risk of introduction point of view is the Asian chipmunk Tamias sibiricus.

In this Decision, introduction into the wild has been defined as follows: the deliberate release of animals in all sorts of places and all sorts of sites that have not been shut off by a continuous construction from the adjoining lands, thus making the free access to these lands impossible, no matter what the condition and state of these places and sites are. The Decision of the Flemish Government of 21.04.1993 prohibits the introduction into the wild of non-native animal species, unless a special permit is being granted. Such a special permit will only be granted after it has been verified what the influence of the requested introduction into the wild would be on the native fauna and ecosystems and after it has been investigated what the chances are of spread into adjoining lands from the introduction site. These introductions cannot be allowed when there would be any expected negative influence on the native fauna and flora.

In order to protect the native flora and fauna, the Flemish minister responsible for nature conservation can take all necesarry measures to control or remove non-native animal species and their off-spring which have been introduced into the wild non-deliberately or as a violation of the Decision of the Flemish Government of 21.04.1993.

Federal: action 18 of the second FPSD (2004-2008) addresses the issue of developing a national warning system in relation to IAS. The National Biodiversity Strategy (in preparation) will also ad-dress goal 6.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XIII.
Target 6.2 Management plans in place for major alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No X
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established

Please provide details below.

Management plans have been established for the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), coypu (Myocastor coypus), black cherry (Prunus serotina) and floating pennywort (Hydrocotyle ranunculoides). Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) are eradicated in some nature reserves and public green spaces. Steps are also taken for the Canada (Branta canadensis) and Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus). No management plans are available for the Belgian marine environment, although it is flooded by alien species.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XIV.
Goal 7 Address challenges to biodiversity from climate change, and pollution.
Target 7.1 Maintain and enhance resilience of the components of biodiversity to adapt to climate change

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

This target is partially taken into account in a recent project on transfrontal areas linking Flemish, Dutch, Walloon and Luxemburg nature reserves in a North-South direction.

Flemish Region: the estuarine system of the Scheldt river presents a danger of flooding the city of Antwerp and surroundings, as well as zones along the Scheldt river. Because of this, the transboundary Flemish Region-Netherlands project for nature development in and restoration of the estuary of the Scheldt integrates objectives related to the flooding control programme. This includes aspects related to climate change, so as to give more space to the river and its natural dynamics, and to maintain and enhance resilience of the components of biodiversity to adapt to climate change.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XV.
Target 7.2 Reduce pollution and its impacts on biodiversity

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

Objectives aiming to reduce water pollution have been developed within the Regions based on the EU Water Framework Directive.

Flemish Region: the use of pesticides and herbicides by local authorities in public domains or parks is forbidden since January 2004. Farmers receive subsidies through the Rural Development Programme to enlarge and maintain natural borders along their lands and to use manual or mechanised systems instead of chemicals.

Brussels Capital Region: as an urban region, problems of atmospheric, water, soil and noise pollution are very important in the Brussels Capital Region. Important efforts are made to reduce their impacts. In direct relation to biodiversity, special attention is given to reduce effects of water pollution.

The region is currently developing a more ecological approach to water management and is setting up a project for integrated water management: the blue network. This programme is designed to improve the Regions water basins through the improvement of water quality and the re-establishment of the continuity of the water network. The blue network emphasises on integrated, durable and ecologically-justified management of the open waterways in the Region, as well as associated wetlands, marshy areas and ponds. Diverting clean water from waste water collectors should re-establish rivers flows, feed the ponds and wetland areas and reduce the quantity of water to be processed in the treatment stations, as well as limit flooding problems. An improvement in the quality of surface waters and the restoration of river banks, ponds and wetlands should make it possible to improve the ecological, landscape and recreational values of the sites.

A zero tolerance policy in relation to oil pollution is conducted in the Belgian part of the North Sea. Several control devices, such as small, unmanned airplanes, are used for this purpose.

Federal:

  • first FPSD (2000-2004): a continuous reduction in emissions of hazardous and/or radioactive substances, with the ultimate aim of achieving (by 2020) concentrations in the marine environment near background levels for naturally occurring substances and close to zero for man-made synthetic substances;
  • second FPSD (2004-2008): action 30 aims to obtain less polluting vehicles.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XVI.
Goal 8 Maintain capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services and support livelihoods.
Target 8.1 Capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services maintained

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

Objectives in relation to this target are integrated in the Rain Plan and Water Code of the Walloon Region as well as in the Flemish Environment and Natura Plan and the Decrees on Nature Conservation and Water Policy in the Flemish Region. In the Brussels Capital Region, the blue network programme is aiming for the protection and restoration of wetlands, and sites of high biological value are protected.

Federal: first FPSD (2000-2004): halting declines in fish stocks and developing an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, which rules out over-exploitation of fishery resources.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes
Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XVII.
Target 8.2 Biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food security and health care, especially of poor people maintained

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No X
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established

Please provide details below.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XVIII.
Goal 9 Maintain socio-cultural diversity of indigenous and local communities.
Target 9.1 Protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

Federal: according to the Law on International Cooperation (25.05.1999), one of the five priority sectors of the Belgian Development Cooperation is the strengthening of the society, including respect to human dignity, human rights and fundamental freedom. Through its policies and programmes, the Belgian Development Cooperation observes a series of quality criteria, among which figures the respect and the promotion of local and indigenous cultures and practices.

First FPSD (2000-2004): actions in support of local and indigenous communities will include: (1) the ratification of ILO Convention 169 (Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention); (2) support to the strategies of indigenous peoples for the conservation of their traditional territories and the restoration of their control over the management of their natural heritage; (3) initiatives for the international recognition of the collective intellectual property rights of indigenous peoples and local communities within the framework of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO).

Some of the ongoing projects supported by the Flemish Fund for Tropical Forests are particularly emphasising this aspect.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

Federal: concerning the actions foreseen in the first FPSD (see above under I):

(1) Not realised yet.

(2) Belgium, through its development cooperation, finances programmes of different third-party actors that support this target, such as:

  • the Belgian Survival Fund;
  • the Royal Museum for Central Africa;
  • several development NGO's;
  • UN initiatives such as UNESCO and UNDP;
  • ICRAF.

Actions targeting the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices are, e.g.:

  • improvement of traditional livestock and promotion of indigenous cattle species in Kenya, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, Cameroon;
  • support to Masaï communities in Tanzania;
  • support to organisations of indigenous people in Ecuador and Bolivia through a "Fondo Indígena";
  • support to indigenous communities in Peru, Guatemala, Philippines;
  • rescue, inventory and transfer of cultural heritage of African musea;
  • digitalisation and transfer of information on zoological collections;
  • support to research on indigenous fruit in Cameroon.

(3) Creation of a special organ within the WIPO in charge of the examination of intellectual property questions related to genetic resources, traditional knowledge and folklore.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XIX.
Target 9.2 Protect the rights of indigenous and local communities over their traditional knowledge, innovations and practices, including their rights to benefit sharing

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

Federal: first FPSD (2000-2004): actions in support of local and indigenous communities will include:

(1) the ratification of ILO Convention 169 (Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention); 
(2) support to the strategies of indigenous peoples for the conservation of their traditional territories and the restoration of their control over the management of their natural heritage; 
(3) initiatives for the international recognition of the collective intellectual property rights of indigenous peoples and local communities within the framework of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO).

The National Biodiversity Strategy (in preparation) will address this target.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

See previous target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XX.
Goal 10 Ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of genetic resources.
Target 10.1 All transfers of genetic resources are in line with the Convention on Biological Diversity, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture and other applicable agreements

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No X
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established

Please provide details below.

The Belgian Co-ordinated Collections of Micro-organisms (BCCM) has coordinated the concerted action 'MOSAICC, Micro-organisms, Sustainable Use and Access Regulation, International Code of Conduct'. This project has been financed by the European Commission's Directorate General for Research and translates the principles of the Convention on Biological Diversity into practical procedures designed to facilitate access to and transfer of microbial genetic resources. The MOSAICC Code of Conduct can be consulted at http://www.belspo.be/bccm/mosaicc (see also Articles 15 et 16).

The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources (ITPGR) for Food and Agriculture was ratified by Belgium in 2004.

In the National Biodiversity Strategy (in preparation), a strategic objective and related targets will be devoted to access and benefit sharing.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XXI.
Target 10.2 Benefits arising from the commercial and other utilisation of genetic resources shared with the countries providing such resources

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No X
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established

Please provide details below.

In the National Biodiversity Strategy (in preparation), a strategic objective and related targets will be devoted to access and benefit sharing.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XXII.
Goal 11 Parties have improved financial, human, scientific, technical and technological capacity to implement the Convention.
Target 11.1 New and additional financial resources are transferred to developing country Parties, to allow for the effective implementation of their commitments under the Convention, in accordance with Article 20

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established X

Please provide details below.

Belgian Development Cooperation: a significant part of the yearly voluntary contribution of Belgium to UNEP is focused on strengthening capacities in four pilot countries (Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda) for the implementation of CBD objectives through their integration into the national poverty reduction strategies (€1,700,000 / year).

Support provided to the management of five 'World Heritage' national parks in the DR Congo through UNESCO has been confirmed and enhanced for the further work programme (from €200,000 / year to €350,000 / year for 2005-2007).

New bilateral cooperation programmes have recently been launched (end 2004) or are about to be launched shortly (mid-2005) to promote sustainable development through the strengthening of agroforestry activities, social infrastructure and local (decentralised) institutions in buffer zones around key protected areas (both Ecuador and Peru: €7,500,000 / 5 years, Tanzania: €2,000,000 / 4 yrs).

The Flemish Fund for Tropical Forests supports projects contributing to the conservation and sustainable use of the tropical forest. The projects are executed by local organisations.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water X 
Agreement for Belgium-Uganda bilateral cooperation: support to the Wetlands Sector Strategic Plan (€4,000,000 for the period 2003-2006).

Agreement for Belgium-Tanzania bilateral cooperation: development and implementation of an integrated management plan of Kilombero Valley Flood Plain Ramsar Site (€2,000,000 for the period 2004-2007).
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest X 
Agreement Belgium-Peru, for a support to the forest sector, including the promotion of sustainable forest management in the Amazon rainforest basin.
f) Mountain X 
Ecuador and Peru: support to the 'Plan Binacional' (€7,500,000 for the period 2004-2008).

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

Box XXIII.
Target 11.2 Technology is transferred to developing country Parties, to allow for the effective implementation of their commitments under theConvention, in accordance with its Article 20, paragraph 4

I) National target: Has a national target been established corresponding to the global target above?
a) No X
b) Yes, the same as the global target
c) Yes, one or more specific national targets have been established

Please provide details below.

Belgian Development Cooperation: there is no specific nor global target with regard to technology transfer to developing countries in the area of biodiversity, nor are there technology transfer projects as such. Most Belgium's cooperation agreements with partner developing countries include a significant capacity building component (training, technical assistance to institutional strengthening, field studies and rural extension, etc.).

In some cases, capacity building encompasses the settlement or the further development of locally adapted technologies for the use of local biodiversity assets: eg, support to the promotion and the improvement of indigenous cattle (Niger, Burkina Faso) or plant (Ecuador, Bolivia) varieties.

Most of the Belgian support to technology transfer in biodiversity occur indirectly, through support to research, either by means of fellowships for PhD candidates from developing countries, or by structural or ear-marked funding to international agronomic research institutes such as the CGIAR family (IITA, ICRISAT, CIMMYT, CIFOR, CIP, IRRI, IPGRI, CIAT, ILRI, ICRAF, INIBAP): around €5,500,000/year.

The Belgian Development Cooperation is funding several other programmes that indirectly work towards the above target: capacity building scholarships to MSc and PhD level at several universities, special capacity building in biotechnology at the Ghent University, etc.

The Belgium CBD-NFP, with the financial support of the Belgian Development Cooperation, is providing capacity building opportunities to developing country parties for the establishment of their national CHM and national website. It also offers capacity building in relation to the GTI. Through this training some developing countries such as Cambodia, Guyana, the DR Congo and the Union of Co-moros have been able to establish taxonomic reference collections for specific ecosystems. 

Since 1998 the Flemish Interuniversity Council (VLIR) is responsible for the management of the funds provided by the Belgian Development Cooperation of the federal government and intended for University Development Cooperation (UDC). With this purpose, the VLIR-UDC-Secretariat was founded. VLIR acts on behalf of the 6 Flemish universities who should use these funds for collaboration with universities, research institutions and institutions for higher education in the South. Recently, the Flemish colleges are included as well.

The activities financed with these funds, comprise among other things research and training projects, long-term collaboration for the benefit of institutional strengthening of universities in the South, scholarship programmes, scientific exchange, policy advisory research and sensitisation activities.

The general objective of VLIR is to support southern institutions of research and higher education such that they are enabled to fulfil their three-pronged role in education, research and social service, through collaboration with Flemish universities. Capacity building of the institutions in the South and maintaining and expanding the expertise and the level of support within society in the North are spe-cific objectives of the collaboration.

La Coopération Universitaire au Développement (CUD) est chargée, au sein du Conseil Interuniversitaire de la Communauté française de Belgique (CIUF), de la mise en œuvre de la politique de coopération universitaire au développement.Elle est un lieu de dialogue et de concertation. Elle s'efforce de mettre en commun les ressources et potentialités des universités francophones de Belgique pour augmenter ainsi l'efficacité de leur contribution à la coopération internationale et rendre possible et réaliser des projets qu'aucune institution n'aurait la capacité de réaliser seule.

The KULeuven, supported by IPGRI and the EU, provides training on cryopreservation, i.e. fundamentals of cryobiology and plant genetic resources, and more technical information on cryopreservation protocols and anaytical techniques.

II) National targets for specific programmes of work: If such national target(s) ha(s)(ve) been established, please indicate here, and give further details in the box(es).

Programme of work Yes No Details
a) Agricultural
b) Inland water
c) Marine and coastal
d) Dry and subhumid land
e) Forest
f) Mountain

III) Has the global or national target been incorporated into relevant plans, programmes and strategies?
a) No
b) Yes, into national biodiversity strategy and action plan
c) Yes, into sectoral strategies, plans and programmes

Please provide details below.

IV) Please provide information on current status and trends in relation to this target.

V) Please provide information on indicators used in relation to this target.

VI) Please provide information on challenges in implementation of this target.

Some of the people that have participated in capacity building programmes from developing countries parties are not able to fully utilise the technology they learned. There are different reasons for this:

  • time lags of the programme. For some technologies, material has to be purchased. Quite often the type of material to purchase can only be decided after following a capacity building programme. The time needed for the capacity building, project proposal for purchase, funding decision and actual procurement of the material can take long;
  • trainees that follow capacity building programmes are sometimes relocated even shortly after the programme to other jobs in which they can not use their new knowledge to full capacity.

VII) Please provide any other relevant information.

 

 
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Last updated  14-09-2005


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