Third National Report of Belgium
to the Convention on Biological Diversity


C. ARTICLES OF THE CONVENTION

Article 16 - Access to and transfer of technology

117. On Article 16(1), has your country taken measures to provide or facilitate access for and transfer to other Parties of technologies that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity or make use of genetic resources and do not cause significant damage to the environment?
a) No
b) No, but potential measures are under review
c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below) X
d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details below)

Further information on the measures to provide or facilitate access for and transfer to other Parties of technologies that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity or make use of genetic resources and do not cause significant damage to the environment.

One of the tasks of the Belgian Clearing-House Mechanism (B CHM) is to promote scientific and technical cooperation, as well as capacity building among Parties of the Convention. The B CHM plays a partnering role to developing countries by hosting for the time needed their national CHM and by providing training opportunities for CHM national focal points. The B CHM is hosted by the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (http://bch-cbd.naturalsciences.be). 

The Belgian Biosafety Clearing-House (BBCH) is the Belgian node of the Biosafety Clearing-House (BCH). The BBCH was established by the Service of Biosafety and Biotechnology (SBB) in June 2001 (website: http://www.biosafetyprotocol.be). The information provided concerns local and international regulations, GMO's authorisations in Belgium, guidelines and agencies involved in biological safety including its biodiversity dimension but also scientific information related to GMO's. The SBB plays a partnering role to developing countries by organising training activities for the creation and use of BCH.

Substantial aid to developing countries in terms of biodiversity-related technology and/or knowledge transfer is provided through the Consultative Group on International Agricutural Research (CGIAR) and its components: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP - see case study 3 in annex). The overall support from Belgium for the CGIAR-related institutes amounts to €5,000,000 for 2003 and €4,500,000 for 2004, of which more than €4,000,000 consists of earmarked funding through a dozen of research and capacity building programmes.

The Belgian Development Cooperation funds universities, via the Flemish and French Community Interuniversity Councils (VLIR and CIUF), to carry out research projects on biodiversity in developing countries. The VLIR and CIUF offer scholarships to participate in international courses (MSc level) held in Belgium. These scholarships are available for developing country applicants. VLIR also provides PhD scholarships to promising graduates of its international courses. Both VLIR and CIUF offer travel bursaries for Belgian and European students registered at a Flemish and French-speaking universities for travel to a developing country. For all these programmes, topics must have a strong development component.

The Belgian Federal Science Policy Office gives funding to several projects of interest, and is also responsible for coordinating the preparation and the follow-up for the scientific section of the bilateral agreements for economic, industrial, scientific and technological cooperation which Belgium has concluded with a number of countries (Bulgaria, China, Poland, Russia, Vietnam). The Belgian Federal Science Policy Office finances bilateral cooperation projects and finances the Belgian contribution to GBIF, which includes a capacity-building component. The 'Belgian Coordinated Collections of Micro-organisms' (BCCM) constitute a consortium of four complementary research-based culture collections financed by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office. BCCM aims to share the biological material of its collections, related information, as well as its experience and know-how in the field of fundamental and applied (micro)biology to the benefit of its partners and clients in the scientific and industrial communities. BCCM provides capacity building for micro-organisms (website: http://bccm.belspo.be ).

Since June 2000, the Plant Biotechnology Institute for Developing Countries (IPBO, Ghent University) is active in training, technology transfer and plant biotechnology research, oriented to the needs of the developing countries. The topics on which the institute concentrate its activities are Biodiversity, Nutritional Enhancement, Plant Diseases and Abiotic Stress, involving the following crops: Bamboo, Beans, Cassava (manioc), Citrus, Cowpea, Lathyrus (grass pea), Papaya, Rice, Tropical Trees and Banana (website: http://www.ipno.ugent.be). 

The International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain (INIBAP) was created in 1985, with the objectives of creating partnerships and supporting research carried out by its partners in both developing and industrialised countries. Many of the producing countries have limited research capacity, but participation in regional networks supported by INIBAP helps them to make the best use of available resources. INIBAP maintains germplasms of Banana and Plantain under the auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), in the framework of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). INIBAB has established the world's largest Musa germplasm collection, which is located at KULeuven University in Belgium. INIBAP has put in place a system for the safe movement of these varieties, and this material is distributed freely worldwide. Since May 1994, INIBAP is a programme of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricutural Research (CGIAR). The website of INIBAP is http://www.inibap.org. See also information on cryopreservation in box XXIII.

118. On Article 16(3), has your country taken measures so that Parties which provide genetic resources are provided access to and transfer of technology which make use of those resources, on mutually agreed terms?
a) No
b) No, but potential measures are under review
c) Yes, some measures are in place X
d) Yes, comprehensive legislation is in place
e) Yes, comprehensive statutory policy or subsidiary legislation in place
f) Yes, comprehensive policy and administrative arrangements in place
g) Not applicable

119. On Article 16(4), has your country taken measures so that the private sector facilitates access to joint development and transfer of relevant technology for the benefit of Government institutions and the private sector of developing countries?
a) No
b) No, but potential measures are under review
c) Yes, some policies and measures are in place (please provide details below) X
d) Yes, comprehensive policies and measures are in place (please provide details below)
e) Not applicable

Further information on the measures taken.

The Belgian Investment Office (BIO) is a public-private fund aimed at providing financial support to develop the private sector of developing countries. It is aimed at being a facilitation mechanism for private North-South partnerships so as to enable technology transfers, including in the field of biodiversity-related issues (http://www.b-i-o.be).

Box LV.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article specifically focusing on:

a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken;
b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention;
c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target;
d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans;
e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals;
f) constraints encountered in implementation.

Programme of Work on transfer of technology and technology cooperation

120. Has your country provided financial and technical support and training to assist in the implementation of the programme of work on transfer of technology and technology cooperation? (decision VII/29)
a) No
b) No, but relevant programmes are under development
c) Yes, some programmes being implemented (please provide details below) X
d) Yes, comprehensive programmes being implemented (please provide details below)

Further comments on the provision of financial and technical support and training to assist in the implementation of the programme of work on transfer of technology and technology cooperation.

The Earth observation programmes Stereo and Vegetation, supported by the Federal Science Policy aim at generalising use of satellite data as a source of information, contributing simultaneously to infrastructure, to data support and data use, introducing of remote sensing in operational services, grouping researchers into poles of expertise of international standing. The poles of expertise developed within the programme are: the cartography and land management; the agriculture, the study of ecosystems and vegetation at the local, regional and global scale. These poles of expertise are of direct assistance to developing countries for the implementation or preparation of their biodiversity conservation strategies (http://telsat.belspo.be/projects/projectsearch.asp).

121. Is your country taking any measures to remove unnecessary impediments to funding of multi-country initiatives for technology transfer and for scientific and technical cooperation? (decision VII/29)
a) No
b) No, but some measures being considered
c) Yes, some measures are in place (please provide details below)
d) Yes, comprehensive measures are in place (please provide details below) X

Further comments on the measures to remove unnecessary impediments to funding of multi-country initiatives for technology transfer and for scientific and technical cooperation.

The Paris Declaration (March 2005) on Aid Effectiveness targets more ownership, harmonisation, alignment, results and mutual accountability. Its §4 states that both donor and developing countries commit themselves "to taking concrete and effective action to address the remaining challenges, including (…) insufficient integration of global programmes and initiatives into partner countries' broader development agendas (…)". This commitment is not specific to technology transfer and scientific and technical cooperation, but it provides the framework to do so.

A harmonisation agenda is currently underway, it includes the adjustement of each donor country's cooperation procedure toward a common approach.

See also question 117.

122. Has your country made any technology assessments addressing technology needs, opportunities and barriers in relevant sectors as well as related needs in capacity building? (annex to decision VII/29)
a) No X
b) No, but assessments are under way
c) Yes, basic assessments undertaken (please provide details below)
d) Yes, thorough assessments undertaken (please provide details below)

Further comments on technology assessments addressing technology needs, opportunities and barriers in relevant sectors as well as related needs in capacity building.

123. Has your country made any assessments and risk analysis of the potential benefits, risks and associated costs with the introduction of new technologies? (annex to decision VII/29)
a) No
b) No, but assessments are under way X
c) Yes, some assessments undertaken (please provide details below)
d) Yes, comprehensive assessments undertaken (please provide details below)

Further comments on the assessments and risk analysis of the potential benefits, risks and associated costs with the introduction of new technologies.

The newly (2004) designated Belgian Focal Point for the Cartagena Protocol (DG Environment, Federal Public Service for Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment) has launched in 2005 a research project, with a team from a Belgian university, on socio-economical impacts of GMO's, interesting developed and developing countries. This aims at establishing a methodology for the study of such impacts, on basis of some cases studies, respecting the wording of the Cartagena Protocol (socio-economic impacts of GMO's related to impacts on biodiversity and on the indigeneous and local populations). In that study, the case by case general relevancy of GMO cultures compared to other types of cultures and technologies, solving the same problems is considered, in terms of impacts for the environment, for the local population (producers and consumers) and for the food-chain, taking also into account the influence and cost of marketing. The first part of this study (for which a renewal of funding is awaited) did start in April 2005 and will finish at the end of 2005. This work is complementary to the work already undertaken by the Catholic University of Louvain in this area.

124. Has your country identified and implemented any measures to develop or strengthen appropriate information systems for technology transfer and cooperation, including assessing capacity building needs? (annex to decision VII/29)
a) No
b) No, but some programmes are under development
c) Yes, some programmes are in place and being implemented (please provide details below) X
d) Yes, comprehensive programmes are being implemented (please provide details below)

Further comments on measures to develop or strengthen appropriate information systems for technology transfer and cooperation.

The Belgian Development Cooperation holds a permanent database where all development aid interventions are recorded, according to the donors' obligation to report ODA (Official Development Aid) and OA (Official Aid) to the Development Aid Committee (DAC) of OECD. They also include all technology transfer actions that are financed or co-financed by public funding and which respond to the DAC's criteria for ODA. This database is not accessible yet to a wider public.

Currently, a new, more comprehensive and user-friendly internet-based database management system is under construction and expected to be operational in mid-2005, where substantial information will be readily available on any theme.

With regard to developing countries, the Belgian Cooperation has supported different information management systems related to biodiversity. So far, these systems are essentially focused on knowledge transfer, but present a potential for technology transfer:

  • capacity building activities for the implementation of the CBD's Clearing House Mechanism in several developing countries (training and technical assistance). See also answer in box LIX concerning capacity building for the Biosafety Clearing house of the Cartagena Protocol);
  • the Central African programme REIMP (Regional Environmental Information Management Programme) is implemented by the 'Association pour le Développement de l'Information Environnementale' (ADIE). The main goal of this programme is to improve the management of biodiversity and natural resources in the Congo Basin, through fostering an effective knowledge transfer toward and within the seven countries involved (DRC, Congo, Gabon, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, CAR and Chad).

Since 1996, IPH manages the Belgian Biosafety Server (website: http://biosafety.ihe.be). This website primarily aims at providing to, and exchanging with, the competent authorities, the scientific community, the private sector, NGO's and the public in general, scientific, technical and legal information on genetically modified organisms. Due to the horizontal character of GMO's and Biotechnology, the information provided concerns both R&D and market parameters of the agro-food/feed, pharmaceutical, medical, veterinary, agronomic and environmental sectors but also local and international regulations, guidelines and agencies involved in biological safety including its biodiversity dimension.

A project called METAFRO InfoSys (Metadata African Organization - Information System) (website: http://metafro.africamuseum.be/) was launched at the end of 1997. Metafro Infosys is an electronic catalogue of data sets and data sources related to Central Africa (including Angola, Burundi and Rwanda). The data set includes documents, metadata information on institutions and research projects, library catalogues and collections. This "Information system" or "knowledge management system", namely a full CRIS (Current Research Information System) is dedicated to provide access to and dissemination of research information related to Central Africa (including Angola, Burundi and Rwanda). Metafro Infosys is also the Digital Information Centre (DICE) for the Royal Museum for Central Africa. Identified beneficiaries of the catalogue are research and training institutions; Central African countries (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo - Kinshasa, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon) including Angola, Burundi and Rwanda, and regional organisations; federal administrations; NGO's, the private sector; international organisations (FAO, UNEP, UNDP, UNHCR, UNESCO, The World Bank, IUCN, WWF, IGBP, Research stations, ITTO, EC Programmes, etc.). The launch and first part of the project were financed by the Belgian Science Policy. From 2002 onwards, METAFRO Infosys is supported by the Belgian Development Cooperation.

For B CHM and BCCH: see under question 117.

125. Has your country taken any of the measures specified under Target 3.2 of the programme of work as a preparatory phase to the development and implementation of national institutional, administrative, legislative and policy frameworks to facilitate cooperation as well as access to and adaptation of technologies of relevance to the Convention? (annex to decision VII/29)
a) No
b) No, but a few measures being considered
c) Yes, some measures taken (please specify below) X
d) Yes, many measures taken (please specify below)

Further comments on the measures taken as a preparatory phase to the development and implementation of national institutional, administrative, legislative and policy frameworks to facilitate cooperation as well as access to and adaptation of technologies of relevance to the Convention.

See information above.

Four case studies can be found in annex.

Box LVI.

Please elaborate below on the implementation of this article and associated decisions specifically focusing on:

a) outcomes and impacts of actions taken;
b) contribution to the achievement of the goals of the Strategic Plan of the Convention;
c) contribution to progress towards the 2010 target;
d) progress in implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans;
e) contribution to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals;
f) constraints encountered in implementation.

Case studies of Belgian cooperation in technology transfer and capacity building

Case study 1: the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office

At the federal level, the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (Belspo) gives funding to several projects of interest, and is also responsible for coordinating the preparation and the follow-up for the scientific section of the bilateral agreements for economic, industrial, scientific and technological cooperation which Belgium has concluded with a number of countries (Bulgaria, China, Poland, Russia, Vietnam). Belspo website is http://www.belspo.be. The Belgian Co-ordinated Collections of Micro-organisms (BCCMTM) constitute a consortium of four complementary research-based culture collections financed by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (see web site http://www.belspo.be/bccm/). Over 50.000 well-documented and authenticated strains of bacteria, filamentous and yeast fungi (including the most important test and control strains) and over 1.500 plasmids are readily deliverable by BCCMTM on a world-wide basis. Some 10 unique cDNA libraries are also made available.

The BCCMTM consortium aims to share the biological material of its collections, related information, as well as its experience and know-how in the field of fundamental and applied (micro)biology to the benefit of its partners and clients in the scientific and industrial communities.

The Federal Science Policy Office is responsible for coordinating the preparation and the follow-up for the scientific section of the bilateral agreements for economic, industrial, scientific and technological cooperation which Belgium has concluded for already more than twenty years with a number of countries (Bulgaria, China, Poland, Russia, Vietnam). The Federal Science Policy Office chairs the Belgian delegation at the regular meetings (about every 2 years) of the Mixed Committees for S&T cooperation where representatives of both countries examine the results of the bilateral cooperation and set together the course of future common projects.

Within these framework agreements, science policy acts as driving force for the overall relationships and the promotion of the commercial traffic between the concerned countries. The S&T cooperation can take various forms: information exchange, exploratory expert mission, common research and demonstration or valorisation project.

Alongside coordination, the Federal Science Policy Office itself finances cooperation projects in their areas of competence, particularly projects involving space research or that are linked to subjects dealt with national research programmes or conducted by federal scientific institutions under the jurisdiction of the Minister of Science Policy. In this way, they contribute to the international valorisation of this research and the transfer of know-how.

- BULGARIA: A bilateral agreement for economic, industrial, scientific and technical cooperation between the Belgian-Luxemburg Economic Union (BLEU) and the Republic of Bulgaria was signed on the 22nd of March 1974. Within this framework, the the XIIth meeting of the Mixed Committee for S&T cooperation was held in Sofia on the 22nd of Mai 2003; 8 cooperation projects have been approved.

- CHINA: A bilateral agreement for economic, industrial, scientific and technical cooperation between the Belgian-Luxemburg Economic Union (BLEU) and the People's Republic of China was signed in Beijing on the 23rd of November 1979. Within this framework, the XIVth meeting of the Mixed Committee for S&T cooperation was held in Beijing on the 21th en 22th of November 2002; 21 cooperation projects have been approved.

- POLAND: A bilateral agreement for economic, industrial, scientific an technical cooperation between the Belgian-Luxemburg Economic Union (BLEU) and the Republic of Poland was signed in Brussels on the 22nd of November 1973. Within this framework, the XVth meeting of the Mixed committee for S&T cooperation was held in Brussels on the 26th and 27th of March 2001; 15 cooperation projects have been approved.

- RUSSIA: An agreement of understanding and cooperation between the Kingdom of Belgium and the Russian Federation was signed in Brussels on the 8th of December 1993. Within this framework, the last meeting of the Mixed Committee was held in Brussels on the 24th of June 2002; 18 cooperation projects have been approved. 

- VIETNAM: On 25 september 2002 a federal agreement for scientific and technical cooperation was signed in Brussels between the Government of the Kindom of Belgium and the Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The cooperation will be focused in a first step on aquaculture, including related quality standards for environment and food safety.

Research projects:

BL/10/C11: Study and conservation of specific groups of Actinomycetes and Microfungi in China
BL/19/C19: Belgian and Chinese Crop Growth Monitoring Systems: comparison, adaptation and improvement 
BL/C/003: 3-D modelling of the circulation and dispersion of pollutants in marine coastal zones
BL/C/03: Use of Remote Sensing Technology for the search of copper deposits in Henan province
BL/C/04: Municipal Information Network for Science and Technology Commission of Chongqing
BL/C/05: Design and implementation of an urban geographical information system (Hangzhou) integrating remote sensing techniques 
BL/C/10: Identification and classification of Actinomycetes, specially bioactive Streptomyces strains isolated from Chinese soils 
BL/C/11: Mycofloristic survey and taxonomic studies of saprobic microfungi isolated in the Changbai Mountains 
BL/P/02: Compiling of a spatial forest databank for the monitoring of pine woods in Poland 
BL/P/03: Biodiversity in the Coastal Antarctic Sea-Ice Zone 

Case study 2: the Plant Biotechnology Institute for Developing Countries

The Plant Biotechnology Institute for Developing Countries (IPBO, Ghent University) is active in training, technology transfer and plant biotechnology research, oriented to the needs of the developing countries. IPBO was inaugurated on June 13, 2000. The website of the institute is http://www.ipbo.ugent.be. The topics on which the institute concentrate its activities are Biodiversity, Nutritional Enhancement, Plant Diseases and Abiotic Stress, involving the following crops: Bamboo, Beans, Cassava (manioc), Citrus, Cowpea, Lathyrus (grass pea), Papaya, Rice, Tropical Trees and Banana.

The project Bamboo Thematic Network has the following general objectives:

  • to create a knowledge infrastructure that will foster bilateral co-operation between European and developing countries in order to valorise international scientific research on bamboo. 
  • to identify the socio-economic and environmental conditions and corresponding implementation strategies required for the commercial and industrial validation of research on bamboo as a timber substitute and renewable source of bioenergy. 
  • to determine the long and short term research on bamboo needed to integrate bamboo technologies in the global market while ensuring sustainable development. This project has the following scientific and technological objectives: 
  • to establish a network from industry, research institutes, and universities focusing on bamboo RTD in order to: 
  • improve co-operation between research organisations and industry in Europe and developing countries
  • facilitate access for research centres and industries in the EU to technical knowledge about bamboo in developing countries 
  • engage in advanced research on bamboo biotechnology 
  • simplify and improve exchange of knowledge about bamboo through meetings, internet presence, and on-line databases 
  • create a public forum in which the research community can generate and focus new research proposals for submission
  • to develop a 'bamboo RTD knowledge base' on the Internet in order to: 
  • collect and consolidate national socio-economic and environmental data relevant to bamboo 
  • maintain a state-of-the-art inventory of biotechnological developments on bamboo 
  • disseminate research finding on bamboo and related fields with relevance to industry and the environment 
  • increase public awareness on environmental, economic, and industrial aspects of bamboo 
  • to identify the demands and requirements from industry into research on bamboo in various fields in order to: 
  • compose a matrix of bamboo genotypes, silviculture techniques, industrial processes, and products 
  • detect unsolved problems, gaps in knowledge, and market feasibility 
  • generate ideas to solve technical problems within research on bamboo and develop plans for innovative and cost effective RTD projects 
  • initiate a programme of technology transfer focusing on bamboo biotechnology and wood technology 
  • identify opportunities for European involvement in bamboo RTD projects in third countries 

The project Molecular diversity and relationships of the genera Carica and Vasconcellea aim to clear out the relationships and investigate the genetic diversity between and within the genera Carica and Vasconcellea. The genera Carica and Vasconcellea are two of the six genera belonging to the plant family of the Caricaceae. Carica papaya is the best-known and economically most important plant of this family, with a fruit production of 5,4 Mton in 2001 (FAO). Unripe fruits are frequently used for the extraction of the proteinase papain, which has applications in the beverage, food and pharmaceutical industries. The Vasconcellea species have big potential for the future as some of them contain papain with higher enzymatic activity, while others bear bigger or sweeter fruits. Above all, they grow in colder subtropical areas than Carica papaya. Different methods are used: microsatellites, DNA sequencing, flow cytometry and cytogenetic investigation.

The project on Sustainable Management of Neo-Tropical Tree Genetic Resources: Combining molecular and modelling methods to understand the structure and dynamics of gene diversity has the following goals:

  • to examine the structure and dynamics of genetic variation for a range of species within natural ecosystems and identify the main factors that are responsible for the partitioning of variation within a range Central and South American forest tree species. 
  • to examine the impact of identified extraction methods/habitat degradation on selected economically important species. 
  • to produce a model that will integrate field observations and DNA-based technologies to provide realistic simulations of the impact of differing land-use strategies and extraction regimes on the genetic resource base of impacted species. 
  • to improve capacity to execute sound natural forest management by improving awareness of genetic implications of natural forest management and implementation of a modelling approach to setting sustainability strategies.

Tropical forests are complex ecosystems, and their management often involves the sustainable exploitation of a range of resources, including non-timber products (e.g. fruits and nuts, medicines etc). Genetic diversity represents an essential component promoting population level adaptation ensuring the continued proliferation of individual species within tropical systems. Reduced genetic diversity can lead to loss of adaptive variation and inbreeding depression, both of which can threaten the long-term survival of isolated populations. Many tropical species are currently extracted at unsustainable levels or their habitats are being degraded, threatening the long-term survival of species within this ecosystem. Whether harvested from natural or managed landscapes, there is a need to develop a practical, operational system concerned with the management of genetic sustainability. 

Case study 3: the International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain

This network was created in 1985, with the objectives of creating partnerships and supporting research carried out by its partners in both developing and industrialised countries. Many of the producing countries have limited research capacity, but participation in regional networks supported by INIBAP helps them to make the best use of available resources. INIBAP maintains germplasms of Banana and Plantain under the auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), in the framework of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). INIBAP has established the world's largest Musa germplasm collection, which is located at KULeuven University in Belgium. INIBAP has put in place a system for the safe movement of these varieties, and this material is distributed freely worldwide.

Since May 1994, INIBAP is a programme of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricutural Research (CGIAR). The website of INIBAP is http://www.inibap.org

Case study 4: Workshop on enabling environments for technology transfer

The Centre for Sustainable Development of Ghent University has organised in April 2003 a series of lectures on Transfer of environmentally sound technologies to developing countries under the Climate Convention at the occasion of the UNFCCC Workshop on enabling environments for technology transfer (Ghent, 10-11.04.2003).

Five sessions were hold on each of the key themes of the UNFCCC Framework for meaningful and effective actions to enhance the implementation of Article 4, paragraph 5, of the Convention:

Session 1: Technology Transfer: Historical Account and Broader Perspective
Session 2: Technology Needs and Needs Assessment
Session 3: Technology Information
Session 4: Capacity Building
Session 5: Mechanisms for Technology Transfer
Session 6: Enabling Environments

Report of the workshop: http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/2003/sbsta/inf04.pdf. More information on the different lectures: http://cdonet.rug.ac.be/english/technology_transfer/TT-EN.htm A workshop will be organised by the UNFCCC Expert Group on Technology Transfer in 2005. As Belgium is convinced of the importance to accentuate the link on 'technology transfer and adaptation' between UNFCCC, UNCCD and CBD, we intend to invite CBD en UNCCD at the workshop.

 
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