Glossary of terms related to the CBD


target species
the intended catch of a fishery. (Opposite: bycatch)
taxon  (pl. taxa)
the named classification unit (e.g. Panthera tigris, Panthera, Felidae, Carnivora or Mammalia) to which individuals, or sets of species, are assigned. Lower taxa are  those at subspecies and species level (e.g. Panthera tigris sumatrae). Higher taxa are those above the species level (at genus, family, order, class, etc. level; e.g. Panthera, Felidae, Carnivora, Mammalia). [JVG]
the naming and assignment of organisms to taxa.
technology transfer
the transfer of knowledge or equipment to enable the manufacture of a product, the application of a process, or the rendering of a service. [CUB].
terminator technology
the genetic engineering of plants to produce sterile seeds.
It is considered the most morally offensive application of agricultural biotechnology, because over 1.4 billion people depend on farm-saved seeds. See also: traitor technology.
Tertiary period
the first period of the Cenozoic era, beginning 65 million years ago and closing with the start of the Pleistocene, 2.5 million years ago.
theory of local existence
suggests that the number of species increases or decreases depending on how the environment influences species production, exchange and extinction at any particular time.
threatened species
species that are, often genetically impoverished, of low fecundity, dependent on patchy or unpredictable resources, extremely variable in population density, persecuted or otherwise prone to extinction in human-dominated landscapes. [GBA]
tissue culture
- a technique in which portions of a plant or animal are grown on an artificial culture medium. (Also: in vitro culture.)
- in vitro methods of propagating cells from animal or plant tissue. [CUB]
total economic value
the sum of use and non-use values with due consideration of any trade-offs or mutually exclusive uses or functions of the resource/habitat in question. [GBA]
total environmental value
it is a function of primary value and total economic value. [GBA]
total extracts
contain the whole spectrum of ingredients present in the original herb, plus any new active compounds formed during processing. [CUB]
traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)
the primary healthcare for 20% of the world's population, the system of medicine developed over thousands of years in China, which treats the patient holistically, and includes herbal preparations - usually combinations of between five and ten species. [CUB]
traditional knowledge
the knowledge, innovations and practices of local and indigenous communities. As used in the CBD, those elements of traditional knowledge that are relevant to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. [CUB]
traditional resource rights
the term TRR encompasses intellectual property rights, but denotes broader 'bundles of rights' including for example, human rights, land rights, religious rights, and cultural property.
traitor technology
also known as genetic use restriction technology (GURT), refers to the use of an external chemical to switch on or off a plant's genetic traits.
uptake of naked DNA by a competent recipient strain. [CUB]
organisms into which DNA from another genotype are introduced by, for example, micro-injection or retroviral infection. [CUB]
switching of a segment of a chromosome to another chromosome.
tribal peoples
see: indigenous peoples.
- pertaining to food or nutrition.
- referring to the nutrients available to and used within a population, community, or ecosystem.
trophic level
- position in the food chain, determined by the number of energy-transfer steps to that level.
- feeding level in food chain or pyramid; for example, herbivores (organisms that eat plants) constitute one trophic level.

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