- safe or safety
- the conditions determined with reasonable certainty to have acceptable
or negligible risk to human health or to managed or natural ecosystems. [BSWG/2/5:
Proposed USDA Guidelines for Research Involving the Planned Introduction
in the Environment of Organisms with Deliberate modified Hereditary
Traits, US Department of Agriculture, 56 FR 4134, 1 February 1991]
- safe minimum standard
- a restriction (taboo, prohibition, harvesting season) which limits the
use of resources to levels that are thought to be safe, e.g. conservation
of a sufficient area of habitat to ensure the continued provision of
ecological functions and services, at the ecosystem level. [GBA]
- safe transfer
- is transfer that completely eliminates any adverse effect on the
conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. [BSWG/2/5: Draft
Biosafety Protocol to the Convention on Biological Diversity, prepared by
the Community Nutrition Institute, 910 17th Street NW, Suite
413, Washington, DC 20006]
- secondary forest
- natural forest growth after some major disturbance (e.g. logging,
serious fire, or insect attack). (Opp.: primary forest.)
- secondary value
- the value of ecosystem functions.
- Secretariat to the Convention on Biological Diversity
- staffed by international civil servants and responsible for servicing the Conference of the Parties and ensuring its smooth
operation, the Secretariat to the Convention on Biological Diversity makes
arrangements for meetings, compiles and prepares reports, communicates
with the Convention Parties, and co-ordinates with other relevant
international bodies. The Secretariat to the Convention on Biological
Diversity is administered by UNEP and located in Montreal, Canada. [JVG]
- seed bank
- a facility designed for the ex-situ conservation of individual plant
samples through seed preservation and storage.
- natural selection is the differential contribution of offspring to the
next generation by various genetic types belonging to the same
populations. Artificial selection is the intentional manipulation by man
of the fitness of individuals in a population to produce a desired
evolutionary response. [GBA]
- see in-bred.
- fixed or attached; unable to move.
- sibling species
- species so similar to each other as to be difficult to distinguish by
- the head of state or government, the minister of foreign affairs, or
another designated official indicates his or her country's agreement with
the adopted text of the Convention or the Protocol and its intention to
become a Party by signing.
- the science of cultivating forest crops (usually timber), based on a
knowledge of forest tree characteristics.
- growing vegetation tends to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere. Calculating the effect of sinks
(by land-use change and forestry) is methodologically complex and still needs to be
- social opportunity cost
- the opportunities forgone by society, including externalities, in using
a resource in some way. For biological resources this may be different
than the market price of that resource. [GBA]
- somatic cell
- any cell other than a germ cell.
- source country
- country providing genetic resources.
- the eggs of certain aquatic organisms or the act of producing such eggs or egg masses.
- speciality biotechnology products
- include enzymes, fine chemicals, speciality food products and food ingredients. Non-medical diagnostics for detection of pesticides in
the environment and contaminants in food. [CUB]
- separation of one population into two or more reproductively isolated,
independent evolutionary units.
- - a group of organisms capable of interbreeding freely with each other but
not with members of other species. (Note by JVG: this is a simplified
definition; species concept is much more complex.)
- a taxonomic rank below a genus, consisting of similar individuals
capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding. [CUB]
- species diversity
- the number and variety of species found in a given area in a region.
- species richness
- the number of species within a region. (A term commonly used as a
measure of species diversity, but technically only one aspect of
- species selection
- the differential multiplication and extinction of species as a result of
differences in certain traits possessed by the organisms belonging to the
various species, and causing a spread of the favouring traits through the
fauna or flora as a whole. [GBA]
- expansion of the geographical distribution of a pest [or other organism]
within an area. [FAO bis]
- square brackets
- used during negotiations in UN meetings to indicate that a section of text is being discussed but has
not yet being agreed.
- the ability of a given assemblage of organisms to withstand disturbance without a major change in the number of species or individuals.
- stabilizing selection
- selection favouring individuals in the middle of the distribution of
phenotypes in a population and disfavouring the extremes. Also called
- referring to patterns or processes resulting from random factors.
- a specific population or group of populations.
- straddling stock
- a population of organisms that travels between the exclusive economic zones of two or more countries, or between them and the high seas.
- a population of cells all descended from a single cell; also called a clone. A group of organisms within a species or variety distinguished by one or more minor characteristics; a variety of bacterium or fungus used for culturing. The term is mostly associated with cells, bacteria, fungi and viruses, but is sometimes applied to plants. [CUB].
- strong sustainable development principle
- the opportunity set for future generations can only be assured if the
level of biodiversity they inherit is no less than that available to
present generations. [GBA]
- subsidiary body
- a committee that assists the Conference of the Parties.
- Subsidiary Body of the Convention on Biological Diversity
- The Convention defines one permanent committee: the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA). The Conference of the Parties may establish additional subsidiary bodies as needed; for example in 1996 it set up the Open-ended Ad Hoc Working Group on Biosafety..
- government grants to suppliers of goods or services.
- groupings or populations within a species that are distinguishable by
morphological characteristics or, sometimes, by physiological or
- surrogate markets
- markets used in place of the missing markets for environmental
resources. Surrogate markets are at least existing markets for resources
with some of the properties of the non-marketed resource being valued. [GBA]
- sustainable development
- - development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
[Earth Summit +5]
- - development that meets the needs and aspirations of the current
generation without compromising the ability to meet those of future
- sustainable intensification of animal production systems
- the manipulation of inputs to, and outputs from, livestock production
systems aimed at increasing production and / or productivity and / or
changing product quality, while maintaining the long-term integrity of the
systems and their surrounding environment, so as to meet the needs of both
present and future human generations.
- Sustainable agricultural intensification respects the needs and
aspirations of local and indigenous people, takes into account the roles
and values of their locally adapted genetic resources, and considers the
need to achieve long-term environmental sustainability within and beyond
the agro-ecosystem. [FAO]
- sustainable use
- the use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate
that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity,
thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of
present and future generations. [CBD]
- the close relationship of two organisms in proximity, with one benefiting and the other either benefiting (mutualism), not being significantly affected (commensalism), or being harmed
- occurring in the same place. (Opp.: allopatric.)
- sympatric speciation
- speciation via populations with overlapping geographic ranges.
- the study of the historical evolutionary and genetic relationships among
organisms and of their phenotypic similarities and differences.
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