- parapatric speciation
- speciation in which the new species forms from a population contiguous
with the ancestral species' geographic range.
- - an organism that consumes part of the tissues of its host, usually
without killing the host.
- an organism which lives on or in another organism, feeding upon it. [FAO
- - kind of insect whose larvae develop within and kill their host.
- an insect parasitic only in its immature stages, killing its host in the
process of its development, and free living as an adult. [FAO bis]
- field-trained biodiversity collection and inventory specialist recruited
from local areas.
- a state (or regional economic integration organization such as the EU)
that ratifies, accepts or approves the CBD or accedes thereto becomes a
Each Party to the Convention is represented at sessions of the Convention
bodies by a national delegation consisting of one or more officials who
are empowered to represent, and negociate on behalf of, their government.
Based on the tradition of the UN, Parties are organised into five regional
groups, mainly for the purposes of electing the Bureaus.
- passive use value
- see: non-consumptive value.
- a government grant of temporary monopoly rights on innovative processes
- a disease-causing micro-organism; a bacterium, fungus or virus.
- - a sequence of reactions undergone in a living organism. [CUB]
- any means that allows the entry or spread of a pest. [FAO bis]
- - living in the water column. (Opposite: benthic).
- free-swimming (nektonic) or floating (planktonic) organisms that live
exclusively in the water column, not on the bottom.
- any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal or pathogenic agent
injurious to plants or other organisms and/or their products. [JVG]
- - the observed traits of an organism, resulting from an interaction of its
genotype and its environment.
- the characteristics of an organism that result from the interaction of
its genetic constitution with the environment. [CUB]
- - a volatile hormone or behaviour-modifying agent. Normally used to
describe sex attractants -for example bombesin for the moth Bombyx-
but includes volatile aggression-stimulating agents (e.g. isoamyl
acetate in honey bees). [CUB]
- a hormone-like substance secreted into the environment by certain
animals, especially insects. [CUB]
- chemical reactions in plants and plant-like organisms whereby the sun's energy is absorbed by the green pigment chlorophyll, permitting carbon dioxide and water to be synthesized into carbohydrates accompanied by the release of water and oxygen.
- phyletic evolution
- genetic changes that occur within an evolutionary line.
- history or evolutionary development of any plant or animal species.
- pertaining to the evolutionary history of a particular group of
- in taxonomy and systematics, the highest level of classification below
the kingdom. For instance, Mollusca (slugs, snails, clams, squids, etc.)
constitute a phylum. [JVG]
- medicinal products based on standardised active ingredients within a
herbal base. This term is sometimes used more broadly to include all
plant-based medicines. [CUB]
- naturally-occurring compounds found in fruits and vegetables, such as
beta carotene, capsaicin, and flavonoids. [CUB]
- planktonic organisms ranging in size from 0.2 to 2.0 micrometers.
- - floating, drifting or slowly swimming organisms that cannot swim
- floating and drifting organisms that have limited swimming abilities and that are carried largely passively with water currents (opp. nekton). These include bacteria (bacterioplankton), plants and plant-like organisms (phytoplankton) and the animals (zooplankton) that eat them.
- plant functional attributes
- readily observable features of vegetation that are considered
significant for growth, physiology and survival (for example pollination
mechanisms, seed dispersal mechanisms, rooting systems.) [GBA]
- the span of geological time preceding the Recent epochs, during which
the human species evolved. It began 2.5 million years ago and ceased with
the end of the last Ice Age 10.000 years ago.
- an open session of the entire Conference of the Parties or a subsidiary
all formal decisions are taken.
- organisms that float on the sea surface.
- policy failure
- occurs when government policies do not correct for market failures. [GBA]
- pollen culture
- a culture of plant cells derived from pollen in a synthetic medium: the progeny generated will have a single set of chromosomes. [CUB]
- - the transfer of pollen from an anther to the stigma in angiosperms, or
from the microsporangium to the micropyle in gymnosperms.
- pollination happens when pollen lands on a female part of a flower such
as the stigma of a carpel. Pollination can be caused by pollinators such
as butterflies, bees, birds, bats but also by the wind or the water.
- a pollinator is an agent, generally an animal (insect, bird, bat, etc.)
that carries pollen to the female part of a flower.
- organism containing two or more sets of genes or chromosomes.
- a group of individuals with common ancestry that are much more likely to
mate with one another than with individuals from another such group.
- population viability analysis
- a comprehensive analysis of the many environmental and demographic
factors that affect survival of a population, usually small.
- a herbicide which acts after the seed has germinated.
- the development of germplasm to a state where it is viable for breeder's use. Primarily involves the evaluation of traits from exotic material and their introduction into more cultivated backgrounds. [CUB]
- precautionary principle
- - (= do-no-harm principle) a proactive method of dealing with the
environment that places the burden of proof on those whose activities
could harm the environment. (Opposite: wait-and-see principle)
- if the costs of current activities are uncertain, but are potentially
both high and irreversible, the precautionary principle holds that society
should take action before the uncertainty is resolved. [GBA]
- pre-clinical studies
- the various tests conducted in whole animals and other test systems, such as cell cultures, to determine the relative toxicity of a compound to living systems. These are referred to as pre-clinical studies - tests conducted and evaluated prior to the
first administration of the compound to humans. Also included in this
category are two-year carcinogenicity assays which typically overlap with
the chemical testing phase. Pre-clinical tests include: toxicity
(how poisonous it is and what side effects might be expected); bioavailability
(how effectively it is taken up into the body and delivered to the tissue
where it is needed); pharmacokinetics (how it is metabolised, and
therefore how long it stays in the body); and whether it has the desired
physiological effect. [CUB]
- - an animal that kills and eats animals.
- a natural enemy that preys and feeds on other animal organisms, mor than
one of which are killed during its lifetime [FAO bis]
- preparatory committee (PrepCom)
- the establishment of a preparatory committee is a very important
administrative step in the process of an international conference because
it refines conference issues in seeking consensus. When world leaders meet
at the conference itself, their only task is to approve pre-negotiated
- elected by the Parties to preside over the COP, the President is often a
senior official or minister from the state or region hosting the meeting.
- primary forest
- a forest largely undisturbed by human activities. (Also: natural forest;
opp. secondary forest.)
- primary metabolites
- compounds ubiquitous in living organisms and essential for life, such as carbohydrates, the essential amino acids and polymers derived from them. [CUB]
- primary production
- amount of organic material synthesised by organisms from inorganic substrata in a
given area in a given period.
- primary productivity
- the transformation of chemical or solar energy to biomass. Most primary
production occurs through photosynthesis, whereby green plants convert
solar energy, carbon dioxide, and water to glucose and eventually to plant
tissue. In addition, some bacteria in the deep sea can convert chemical
energy to biomass through chemosynthesis. [UNEP]
- primary value
- the value of the system characteristics upon which all ecosystem
- primitive cultivar
- crop forms developed from landraces. Improvement through selection restricted to a few specific characteristics and often more uniform in nature than a landrace. [CUB]
- prior informed consent (PIC)
- the principle that international shipment of a pesticide that is banned
or severely restricted in order to protect human health or the environment
should not proceed without agreement, where such agreement exists, or
contrary to the decision of the designated national authority in the
participating importing country. [BSWG/2/5: FAO International Code of
Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides]
MOSAICC defines the term 'prior informed consent' as follows:
- the consent is to be acquired prior to accessing microbial genetic
- the consent is to be based on legally correct and trustworthy
information provided by the partners to this PIC-agreement,
- the consent is to be granted by a competent authority of the country
providing the MGRs and according to the national legislation and
The PIC is provided by competent authorities that are entitled to provide
the authorization for access to MGRs. For the purpose of MOSAICC these
competent authorities will be called 'PIC-authorities'.
More information: Philippe Desmeth,
BCCMtm International Co-operation Officer.
PIC is a procedure that helps
participating countries learn more about the characteristics of
potentially hazardous chemicals that may be shipped to them, initiates
a decision making process on the future import of these chemicals by the
countries themselves and facilitates the dissemination of this decision to
other countries. The aim is to promote a shared responsibility between
exporting and importing countries in protecting human health and the
environment from the harmful effects of certain hazardous chemicals being
- private opportunity cost
- the opportunity cost faced by an individual agent of using a resource
(not including any externalities.) [GBA]
- private value
- the value to the private agent of using or refraining from using a
- bacteria that are the smallest photosynthetic cells (less than one micrometers; see picoplankton) in the open ocean; nearly ubiquitous in the sea.
- production environment
- all input-output relationships, over time, at a particular location. The
relationships will include biological, climatic, economic, social,
cultural and political factors, which combine to determine the productive
potential of a particular livestock enterprise.
- - high-input production environment: a production environment
where all rate-limiting inputs to animal production can be managed to
ensure high levels of survival, reproduction and output. Output and
production risks are constrained primarily by managerial decisions.
- medium-input production environment: a production environment
where management of the available resources has the scope to overcome the
negative effects of the environment on animal production, although it is
common for one or more factors to limit output, survival or reproduction
in a serious fashion.
- low-input production environment: a production environment where
one or more rate-limiting inputs impose continuous or variable severe
pressure on livestock, resulting in low survival, reproductive rate or
output. Output and production risks are exposed to major influences which
may go beyond human management capacity. [FAO]
- production function
- this describes the outputs that may be obtained from combining different
quantities of inputs. [GBA]
- production traits
- characteristics of animals, such as the quantity or quality of the milk,
meat, fiber, eggs, draught, etc. they (or their progeny) produce, which
contribute directly to the value of the animals for the farmer, and that
are identifiable or measurable at the individual level. Production traits
of farm animals are generally quantitatively inherited, i.e. they are
influenced by many genes whose expression in a particular animal also
reflects environmental influences. [FAO]
- progeny testing
- procedure to establish the genotype of a parent by recording the genetic status of offspring/progeny. [CUB]
- an organism having a cell without a distinct nucleus. Bacteria and blue-green algae are
prokaryotes. (Opposite: eukaryote.)
- a dispersal stage of a plant or animal, such as fertilized eggs, larvae, or seeds.
- protected area
- - a legally established land or water area under either public or private
ownership that is regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation
- a geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. [CUB]
- any of a class of nitrogenous compounds forming an essential part of living organisms and having large molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acids linked together. [CUB]
- protein engineering
- the generation of proteins (specifically enzymes) with subtly modified structures, thus conferring new properties such as changed catalytic specificity or thermal stability.
- a protocol is linked to an existing convention, but it is a separate and
additional agreement that must be signed and ratified by the Parties to
the convention. Protocols typically expand or strengthen a convention by
adding new or more detailed commitments. [JVG]
- a plant cell from which the cell wall has been removed by mechanical or enzymatic means. Protoplasts can be prepared from primary tissues of most plant organs as well as from cultured plant cells. [CUB]
- public good
- a good which, once provided to one user, must be provided in the same
amount to all users due to its non-rival and non-excludable nature. [GBA]
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(Convention on Biological Diversity)
© Belgian Clearing-House Mechanism, 2001.
On the Internet since 7 October 1996.