Glossary of terms related to the CBD

 

macroevolution
large-scale evolution, entailing major changes in biological traits.
managed forest
productive forest where harvesting regulations are enforced, silvicultural treatments are carried out, and trees are protected from fires and diseases. [GBA]
management of farm animal genetic resources
the sum total of technical, policy, and logistical operations involved in understanding (characterization), using and developing (utilization), maintaining (conservation), accessing, and sharing the benefits of animal genetic resources. [FAO]
mangrove forest
a community of salt-tolerant trees, with associated shrubs or vines and other organisms, that grows in a zone roughly coinciding with the intertidal zone along protected tropical and subtropical coasts.
Manila Declaration
The Manila Declaration Concerning The Ethical Utilization Of Biological Resources, developed at the ASOMPS VII meeting in Manila, Philippines, 2-7 February 1992.
marginal values
the change in the value of a resource that is due to an incremental change in its quantity. [GBA]
mariculture
- cultivation of marine organisms, plant and animal, for purposes of human consumption.
- the growing of marine animals and plants under specialized culture conditions.
- controlled cultivation of marine organisms in tanks, ponds, cages, rafts, or other structures
- farming of marine organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and plants. [JVG]
- breeding and rearing marine fish, shellfish, plants etc. for food in special areas. [JVG]
marine ecosystems
regions of ocean space encompassing coastal areas from river basins to estuaries to the seaward boundary of continental shelves and seaward margins of coastal current systems. They are relatively large regions, characterized by distinct bathymetry, hydrography, productivity and trophically linked populations. [GBA]
marker assisted selection
the use of molecular markers to follow the inheritance of genes, particularly those genes which cannot be readily identified. Selection of a marker flanking a gene of interest allows selection for the presence (or absence) of a gene in a new progeny. [CUB]
market failure
this occurs when market prices are not equal to the social opportunity cost of resources. External effects or externalities are evidence of market failure. [GBA]
market prices
prices generated through a market mechanism. When all costs and benefits (societal) have not been taken into account, this may be less than the social cost. [GBA]
mass selection
breeding method whereby seed from a number of individuals is selected to form the next generation. Selection criteria are relaxed until later generations and crosses are performed at random. [CUB]
maximum sustainable yield
- the largest yield that can be obtained which does not deplete or damage natural resources irreparably and which leaves the environment in good order for future generations. [GBA]
- the maximum amount of a species or group of species that can be taken without diminishing the future take.
mechanism-based screening
a receptor- or enzyme-based screen against which a range of materials can be run, including natural products such as plants, marine organisms, fungi, and micro-organisms, but also synthetic compounds. [CUB]
medicinal and aromatic plant material
whole plants and plant parts (including seeds and fruits) used primarily in perfumery and pharmacy. Includes fresh, dried, uncut, cut, crushed, and powdered material. [CUB]
meiosis
the process of division of sexual cells in which the number of chromosomes in each nucleus is reduced to half the normal number found in normal somatic cells. When two sexual cells fuse, each contributes its half of the chromosomes. The resulting embryo contains the full chromosome complement. Cells with half the chromosomes are called haploids: those with the normal chromosomal complement, diploids. [CUB]
meristem
the tip of a growing plant shoot or root. [CUB]
meristem tip culture
a cell culture developed from a small portion of the meristem tissue of a plant. [CUB]
mesopelagic
referring to depths between 200 to 1,000 meters in the ocean, seas and lakes.
metabolites
chemical products of metabolism; the biological synthesis or breakdown carried out by cells or their components. [CUB]
metapopulation
a set of partially isolated populations belonging to the same species. The different populations are able to exchange individuals and recolonize sites in which the species has recently become extinct.
microbe
synonymous with micro-organism.
microevolution
evolutionary changes on the small scale, such as changes in gene frequencies within a population.
micro-organisms
- groups of microscopic organisms, some of which cannot be detected without the aid of a light or electron microscope, including the viruses, the prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea), and eukaryotic life forms, such as protozoa, filamentous fungi, yeasts and micro-algae. [CUB]
- a micro-organism is a protozoean, fungus, bacterium, virus or other microscopic self-replicating biotic entity. [FAO bis]
micropropagation
the use of biotechnological methods to grow large numbers of plants from very small pieces of plants, often from single cells using tissue culture methods. [CUB]
minimum viable population
the smallest isolated population having a good chance of surviving for a given number of years despite the foreseeable effects of demographic, environmental, and genetic events and natural catastrophes. (The probability of persistence and the time of persistence are often taken to be 99 percent and 1000 years, respectively.) [GBA]
molecular marker
a molecular selection technique of DNA signposts which allows the identification of differences in the nucleotide sequences of the DNA in different individuals.
Agriculture: a tool which allows crop geneticists and breeders to locate on a plant chromosome the genes for a trait of interest. It is considered more efficient than conventional breeding as it has the potential to greatly reduce development times and substitutes laboratory selection for much of the fieldwork. [CUB]
monitoring
the intermittent (regular or irregular) surveillance to ascertain the extent of compliance with a predetermined standard or degree of deviation from an expected norm (Hellawell, 1991.) [GBA]
monophyletic group
set of species containing a common ancestor and all its descendants.
Montpellier Declaration
The Montpellier Declaration on the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.
 
MOSAICC
MOSAICC is a voluntary code of conduct developed to facilitate easy access to and international circulation of microbial genetic resources (MGRs) for the benefit of sciences and world-wide sustainable development in the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity. [see BCCM]
move (moving, movement)
to ship, offer for shipment, offer for entry, import, receive for transportation, carry or otherwise transport or move, or allow to be moved into, through, or within the United States. (See also safe transfer.) [BSWG/2/5: US Federal Register, 7 Code of Federal Regulations part 340, Restrictions on the Introduction of Regulated Articles, 1993]
mutagen
agent that induces a mutation within an organism, such as X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, and certain chemicals such as carcinogens. KP is an agent capable of inducing a mutation (a change that alters the sequence or chemistry of bases in the DNA molecule) in the genetic material of an organism. [CUB]
mutation
any change in the genotype of an organism occurring at the gene, chromosome or genome level.
mutualism
- interspecific relationship in which both organisms benefit. Example: flower pollination by insects.
- a kind of symbiotic relationship, such as the one between sea-anemones and clown-fishes, or corals and zooxanthellae, in which both species benefit; the relationship can be obligate or facultative for one or both partners.

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