- captive breeding
- the propagation or preservation of animals outside their natural habitat
(see ex-situ conservation), involving control by humans of the animals
chosen to constitute a population and of mating choices within that
- carrying capacity
- the maximum number of people, or individuals of species, that a
particular environment can sustain without environmental damage. [JVG]
- Cartagena Protocol
has ratified the Carthagena
Protocol (or Protocol on Biosafety) on 15 April 2004.
- cell fusion
- a technique of fusing two cells from different species to create one
hybrid cell for the purpose of combining some of the genetic
characteristics of each original. [CUB]
- centers of origin and diversity
- places in the world where crops have the greatest genetic diversity in
the form of traditional crop and varieties and/or wild relatives. Centers
of diversity are typically, but not always, the same locations as the
centers of origin or oldest cultivation of the crop. [BSWG/2/5: UNIDO
BINAS Website: Biotechnology Library: Perils amidst the promise: glossary]
- center of diversity
- an area with a high number of species, which might be recognized on a
global, regional or local scale.
- any recognizable trait, feature, or property of an organism.
- characterization of animal genetic resources
- all activities associated with the description of AnGR aimed at better
knowledge of these resources and their state.
Characterization by a country of its AnGR will incorporate development of
necessary descriptors for use, identification of the country's sovereign
AnGR; baseline and advanced surveying of these populations including their
enumeration and visual description, their comparative genetic description
in one or more production environments, their valuation, and ongoing
monitoring of those AnGR at risk. [FAO]
- accumulation of unnatural concentrations of certain chemical compounds.
- set of species from a common ancestral species.
- the removal of the entire standing crop of trees. In practice, may refer
to exploitation that leaves much unsaleable material standing (e.g. a
commercial clear-cutting). [GBA]
- originally used in the business sector, a clearing-house is a service
which facilitates and simplifies transactions among multiple parties.
- - a set of genetically identical organisms, asexually reproduced from
one ancestral organism.
- - a genetic replica of another organism obtained through a non-sexual
(no fertilization) reproduction process.
- Cloning by nucleus transfer involves the transfer of a donor nucleus
from (cultured) cells of embryonic, fetal or adult origin into the
recipient cytoplasm of an enucleated oocyte or zygote, and the subsequent
development of embryos and animals. These clones usually have different
mitochondrial genomes. [FAO]
- - cell or organism identical to an ancestor with respect to genotype and
- evolution of characteristics of two or more species to their mutual
- evolution in two or more interacting species in which the evolutionary
changes of each species influence the evolution of the other species.
- the sharing of authority, responsibility, and benefits between
government and local communities in the management of natural resources. [GBA]
- coastal waters
- marine benthic and pelagic ecosystems having substantial influence from
- Committee of the Whole
- sometimes created by a COP to facilitate the process of negotiating text. When the Committee finishes its work it turns the text over to the COP which finalises and then formally adopts it during a plenary session.
- a type of plant, plant product or other regulated article being moved
for trade or other purpose [FAO bis]
- common property resource management
- the management of a specific resource (such as a forest or pasture) by a
well defined group of resource users with the authority to regulate its
use by members and outsiders. [GBA]
- - all the organisms that live in a given habitat and affect one another
as part of the food web or through their various influences on the
physical environment. [GBA]
- - an integrated group of species inhabiting a given area; the organisms
within a community influence one another's distribution, abundance and
evolution. (A Human Community is a social group of any size whose members
reside in a specific locality.) [WRI et al.]
- compensating variation
- the change in income necessary to restore the consumer to its original
level of utility after a price change. [GBA]
- competent authority
- a government agency or agencies responsible for regulating
biotechnology, biosafety, intellectual property rights and other relevant
aspects. [BSWG/2/5: FAO Draft International Code of Conduct for Plant
Biotechnology as it Affects the Conservation and Utilization of Plant
- use or defense of a resource by one individual that reduces the
availability of the resource to other individuals.
- competitive exclusion
- the extinction of one species by another species in the same area
- Conference of the Parties (COP)
- the COP is the supreme body of the Convention. It currently meets every
two year to review and steer the Convention's progress. The word
'conference' is not used here in the sense of 'meeting' but rather of
'association', which explains the seemingly redundant expression 'fifth
meeting of the Conference of the Parties'.
Overview of COP
- Conference Room Papers (CRPs)
- a category of in-session documents containing new proposals or outcomes
of in-session work for use only during the session.
- an agreement can be adopted by consensus rather than by a vote when there are no stated objections from delegations
- - judicious use and management of nature and natural resources for the
benefit of human society and for ethical reasons. [GBA]
- artificial control of ecological relationships in an environment in
order to maintain a particular balance among the species present.
- - the management of human use of the biosphere so that many yield the
greatest sustainable benefit to current generations while maintaining its
potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations: Thus
conservation in positive, embracing preservations, maintenance,
sustainable utilization, restoration, and enhancement of the
natural environment. [WRI et al.]
- conservation biology
- the science of conserving biological diversity.
- conservation of biodiversity
- the management of human interactions with genes, species, and ecosystems
so as to provide the maximum benefit to the present generation while
maintaining their potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future
generations; encompasses elements of saving, studying, and using
biodiversity. [WRI et al.]
- conservation of farm animal genetic resources
- refers to all human activities including strategies, plans, policies and
actions undertaken to ensure that the diversity of farm animal genetic
resources is being maintained to contribute to food and agricultural
production and productivity, now and in the future. [FAO]
- conservation values
- the value to society of conserving environmental resources.
- contact group
- the COP or the Committee of the Whole may establish an open-ended meeting wherein Parties can negotiate before forwarding agreed text to the plenary for formal adoption. Observers can generally attend.
- contained use
- - any operation involving organisms which are controlled by physical
barriers or a combination of physical and/or biological barriers which
limit their contact with, or their impacts on, the potentially receiving
environment, which includes humans. [BSWG/2/5: UNEP International
Technical Guidelines for Safety in Biotechnology]
- - any operation in which microorganisms are genetically modified or in
which such genetically modified microorganisms are cultured, stored, used,
transported, destroyed or disposed of and for which physical barriers, or
a combination of physical barriers together with chemical and/or
biological barriers are used to limit their contact with the general
population and the environment. [BSWG/2/5: Council Directive 90/219/EEC on
the contained use of genetically modified microorganisms]
- application of phytosanitary [or other] measures in and around an
infested area to prevent spread of a pest or a disease [FAO bis]
- continental shelf
- the edges of continental landmasses, now covered with seawater;
generally the most productive parts of the ocean.
- suppression, containment or eradication of a pest population [FAO bis]
- coral bleaching
- a phenomenon occurring when corals under stress expel their mutualistic
microscopic algae, called zooxanthellae. This results in a severe decrease
or even total loss of photosynthetic pigments. Since most reef building
corals have white calcium carbonate skeletons, the latter show through the
corals' tissue, and the coral reef appears bleached. [JVG]
- in biogeography, having an extremely broad or global distribution.
- cost-benefit analysis
- the appraisal of a investment project which includes all social and
financial costs and benefits accruing to the project. [GBA]
- countries with economies in transition
- those Central and East European countries and former republics of the Soviet Union that are in transition to a market economy.
- country of origin of genetic resources
- the country which possesses those genetic resources in in-situ
- country providing genetic resources
- the country supplying genetic resources collected from in-situ
sources, including populations of both wild and domesticated species, or
taken from ex-situ sources, which may or may not have originated in
that country. [CBD]
- critical breed
- a breed where the total number of breeding females is less than 100 or
the total number of breeding males is less than or equal to five; or the
overall population size is close to, but slightly above 100 and
decreasing, and the percentage of pure-bred females is below 80 percent. [FAO]
- critical-maintained breed and endangered-maintained breed
- categories where critical or endangered breeds are being maintained by
an active public conservation programme or within a commercial or research
- the act or product of cross-fertilization between different individuals.
- the breeding of distinct and genotypic types or forms in plants. This
may entail the transfer of pollen from one individual to the stigma of
another of different genotype. [CUB]
- the transfer of pollen from the stamen of a flower to the stigma of a
flower of different genotype, but usually of the same species. [CUB]
- cryogenic storage
- the preservation of seeds, semen, embryos, or micro-organisms at
extremely low temperatures, below -130 °C; at these temperatures, water
is absent, molecular kinetic energy is low, diffusion is virtually nil,
and storage potential is expected to be extremely long. [GBA]
- the storage of plant material at very low temperatures (-196°C) in
liquid nitrogen. [CUB]
- - a variety of a plant produced by selective breeding.
- a cultivated variety (genetic strain) of a domesticated crop plant.
- distinct form or variety of domesticated plant derived through breeding
and selection and maintained through cultivation. [CUB]
- cultivated species
- see: domesticated species.
- cultural diversity
- variety or multiformity of human social structures, belief systems, and
strategies for adapting to situations in different parts of the world. [WRI
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(Convention on Biological Diversity)
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