- non-living; devoid of life.
- a sample of a crop variety collected at a specific location and time;
may be of any size. [GBA]
- accident (accidental)
- any incident involving a significant and unintended release of
genetically modified microorganisms in the course of their contained use
which could present an immediate or delayed hazard to human heath and the
environment. [Council Directive 90/219/EEC on the contained use of
genetically modified microorganisms]
- accidental release
- the unintentional discharge of a microbiological agent (i.e.,
microorganism or virus) or eukaryotic cell due to a failure in the
containment system. [Proposed Action under the Guidelines for Research
Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (51 Federal Register 16958) National
Institute of Health 55 FR 53258]
- a genetically determined characteristic that enhances the ability of an
organism to cope with its environment.
- adaptation traits
- complex of traits related to reproduction and survival of the individual
in a particular production environment. Adaptation traits contribute to
individual fitness and to the evolution of animal genetic resources. By
definition, these traits are also important to the ability of the animal
genetic resource to be sustained in the production environment [FAO]
- adaptive radiation
- evolutionary diversification of species derived from a common ancestor
into a variety of ecological roles.
- Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines
- The Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable use of
Biodiversity were adopted at COP-7 (CBD Decision
VII/12). They consist of fourteen interdependent practical principles,
operational guidelines and a few instruments for their implementation that
govern the uses of components of biodiversity to ensure the sustainability
of such uses. The principles provide a framework to assist Governments,
resource managers, indigenous and local communities, the private sector
and other stakeholders on how to ensure that their use of the components
of biodiversity will not lead to the long-term decline of biological
diversity. The Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines are available on the
website of the CBD at the following URL: http://www.biodiv.org/doc/publications/addis-gdl-en.pdf
- adaptive zone
- a particular type of environment requiring unique adaptations then
allowing adaptive radiation to occur.
- advanced informed agreement
- advanced informed agreement refers to the principle that international
exchange of transgenic plants and microorganisms that could adversely
affect plants should not proceed without the informed agreement of, or
contrary to the decision of, the competent authority in the recipient
country. (See also prior informed consent.) [BSWG/2/5: FAO Draft
International Code of Conduct for Plant Biotechnology as it Affects the
Conservation and Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources]
- Agenda 21 from the UN Conference on Environment and Development
- Agenda 21 is the framework for activity into the 21st century addressing the combined issues of
environment protections and fair and equitable development for all. Agenda 21 provides a specific
framework for many aspects of the UNEP
programme. The agenda comprises 40 chapters each
addressing specific aspects of these issues. See also: UNCED
Rio Earth Summit.
- agricultural biodiversity
- see: domestic biodiversity.
- agrobiodiversity or agricultural biological diversity
- that component of biodiversity that contributes to food and agriculture
production. The term agrobiodiversity encompasses within-species, species
and ecosystem diversity. [FAO]
- the research on and development of agricultural products such as crop
varieties and crop protection products by modifying genes to confer
desirable properties such as pest resistance or improved nutritional
- the use of ecological concepts and principles to study, design, and
manage agricultural systems. Agroecology seeks to evaluate the full effect
of system inputs and outputs by integrating cultural and environmental
factors into the analysis of food production systems and to use this
knowledge to improve these systems, taking into account the needs of both
the ecosystem as a whole and the people within it. [GBA]
- a collective name for land-use systems and technologies where woody
perennials (tree, shrubs, palms, bamboos, etc.) are deliberately used on
the same land management unit as agricultural crops and/or animals, either
in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. [GBA]
- Akwé: Kon guidelines
- The Akwé: Kon voluntary guidelines for the conduct of cultural,
environmental and social impact assessments regarding developments
proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred sites
and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and
local communities were adopted at COP-7 (CBD Decision
VII/16 F.) among a series of decisions pertaining to the programme of
work on Article 8(j) and related provisions (respect, preservation and
maintenance of knowledge, innovation and practices of indigenous and local
communities). The Akwé: Kon guidelines are available on the website of
the CBD at the following URL http://www.biodiv.org/doc/publications/akwe-brochure-en.pdf
The Akwé: Kon guidelines are named with a Mohawk term meaning
"everything in creation", They provide a collaborative framework
ensuring the full involvement of indigenous and local communities in the
assessment of cultural, environmental and social impact of proposed
developments on sacred sites and on lands and waters they have
traditionally occupied. Moreover, guidance is provided on how to take into
account traditional knowledge, innovations and practices as part of the
impact-assessment processes and promote the use of appropriate
- algal symbiont
- see zooxanthellae.
- alien species
- - a species that has been transported by human activities, intentional or accidental, into a region where it does not naturally occur. (Also known as an exotic, introduced,
nonindigenous, or nonnative species.)
- - a species occurring in an area outside of its historically known natural
range as a result of intentional or accidental dispersal by human
activities. (Also known as an exotic or introduced species.) [GBA]
- - one of several alternatives of a gene.
- any of the different versions of a gene occupying a particular locus (place) on a chromosome.
- one of two or more forms of a gene arising by mutation and occupying the
same relative position (locus) on homologous chromosomes. [CUB]
- Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS)
- the Alliance of Small Island States is a coalition of 42 (as of May
2000) low-lying and small island countries, most of which are members of the G-77, that are particularly vulnerable to sea-level rise.
The AOSIS countries are united by the threat that climate change poses to
their survival, and frequently adopt a common stance in negotiations.
- occupying different geographical ranges. (Opp.: sympatric.)
- allopatric speciation
- speciation through geographically separated populations.
- the annual migratory behavior of adult fish -such as salmon and lamprey-
from the ocean into freshwater rivers and lakes in order to spawn.
- animal genetic resources databank
- a databank that contains inventories of farm animal genetic resources
and their immediate wild relatives, including any information that helps
to characterize these resources. [FAO]
- animal genome (gene) bank
- a planned and managed repository containing animal genetic resources.
Repositories include the environment in which the genetic resource has
developed, or is now normally found (in situ) or facilities
elsewhere (ex situ - in vivo or in vitro). For in vitro,
ex situ genome bank facilities, germplasm is stored in the form of one
or more of the following: semen, ova, embryos and tissue samples. [FAO]
- the absence of oxygen in water and sediments.
- an antimicrobial compound produced by living micro-organisms, used
therapeutically or sometimes prophylactically in the control of infectious
diseases. Over 4,000 antibiotics have been isolated, but only about 50
have achieved wide use. [CUB]
- breeding and rearing fish, shellfish, etc., or growing plants for food
in special ponds. [GBA]
- the therapeutic use of pure essential oils and other substances obtained
from flowers, plants, and aromatic shrubs, through inhalation and
application to the skin. Generally based on traditional practices from
around the world. [CUB]
- artificial insemination
- a breeding technique, most commonly used in domestic animals and
sometimes in captive breeding of wild animals, in which semen is
introduced into the female reproductive tract by artificial means. [GBA]
- artificial selection
- selective breeding, carried out by humans, to produce a desired
- asexual reproduction
- reproduction of a plant or animal without fusion of male and female
gametes. It includes vegetative propagation, cell and tissue culture.
- goods that provide a flow of services over time.
- a technique that measures a biological response; the determination of
the activity or concentration of a chemical. (See bioassay.)
- a philosophy and healing system developed over thousands of years in
India, in which patients are characterized by the elements of earth,
water, fire, air, and ether. Employs botanical preparations, usually
combinations of a number of herbs. [CUB]
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(Convention on Biological Diversity)
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